Monday, September 30, 2019
Ã¢â¬Å"A Good Man Is Hard to Find,Ã¢â¬ is a story of tragedy about a family planning a vacation against the grandmotherÃ¢â¬â¢s better judgment. The grandmother wishes to take a trip to Tennessee, because of a convict on the loose. Bailey is planning a trip to Florida even though the grandmother warns him that the Ã¢â¬Å"MisfitÃ¢â¬ is heading toward Florida. Before their long journey to Florida, the Family decides to stop at a diner to eat. During the visit at the diner, the family discusses the Misfit with the dinerÃ¢â¬â¢s owner. The dinerÃ¢â¬â¢s ownerÃ¢â¬â¢s wife expresses her fear of being robbed by the misfit. After eating their food and ending their conversations he family leaves for Florida. Outside of Toombsboro the grandmother remembered an old plantation she once visited when she was young. She describes the house and tells them about the secret panel. The Children have never seen a house with a secret panel and throw a fit to see it. Bailey is not willing to go to the house, but the children insist. The grandmother shows Bailey the road and he turns down it. As they were traveling the road, the grandmother jumps as she remembered the house is in Tennessee not Georgia. When she jumped she caused Bailey to lose control of the car and runs into a ditch. No one in the family was hurt, but the ehicle was too damaged to drive leaving the family stranded. The family had no other choice but to sit and wait for someone to drive by. As they were sitting on street, they saw a car coming over the hills. The car stopped at the accident and out stepped three men carrying guns. The grandmother notices that one of the men look familiar, but she cannot put it together. As she realizes who he is the grandmother asks him if he is The Misfit. The Misfit tells the other two men two take Bailey and his boy to the woods. As the grandmother is reasoning with , she hears two gunshots. When the men come back they are alone. The Misfits tells he men to get BaileyÃ¢â¬â¢s wife, little girl, and the baby. They take them to woods and three gunshots echo in the woods. The grandmother screams hysterically and tells the Misfit to pray. The grandmother touches the Misfit on the shoulder and he shot her three times. From the beginning of the story, it is obvious the Misfit is being setup to come into the story later on. Foreshadowing built the suspense causing the reader to wonder what would happen next. This information did not tell how or where the story would end. Knowing about the Misfit from the beg inning pulled it all together and made the story much more interesting.
Sunday, September 29, 2019
1.0 Introduction:The word Ã¢â¬Å" composing Ã¢â¬ may intend different things in different fortunes. It could be a personal narration, a short work of fiction or prose, an essay, a dramatic work or a verse form. Each of these plants has its ain set of regulations and features. It is presumed that pupils get downing composing free composing pieces will already hold had a thorough preparation in simple, intermediate, or outlined controlled composing work. The intent of the old types of composing techniques in authorship, as I assumed above, is supposed to assist the pupils to compose on any subject introduced by their instructors. Furthermore, they can execute good in scrutinies provided with stuffs, which they can utilize to show themselves clearly, efficaciously and consistently on any topic, which an ordinary individual is expected to cognize something about it. It is of consensus that authorship is a go oning procedure of detecting how to happen the most effectual linguistic comm unication for pass oning one Ã¢â¬Ës ideas and feelings. It can be disputing, whether composing in one Ã¢â¬Ës native linguistic communication or in a 2nd linguistic communication. As scholars put their ideas on paper, see their thoughts in handwriting or print, and portion them with others, they find that they develop a powerful voice in their new civilization. There is a really simple and of import ground to compose besides pass oning with each other: authorship helps our pupils learn. By composing, scholars reinforce grammatical constructions, parlances, and vocabulary they have been larning. In add-on, when they write they have the opportunity to be more adventuresome with the linguistic communication, they can travel beyond what they have merely learned to state, they take hazards. Finally, when they write, they become involved with the new linguistic communication ; they work hard to show their thoughts and the changeless usage of oculus, encephalon, and manus is a alone man ner to reenforce acquisition. For these grounds, this research is traveling to turn to this subject ( Teaching Writing Free Composition and how it will be thriven if implemented through Critical Thinking ) and in inside informations, attempts to germinate all experient techniques that contribute in success. So, after precise and thorough survey to the subject Ã¢â¬Å" Writing Free Composition Ã¢â¬ and what is known as Ã¢â¬Å" Critical Thinking ( Informal Logic ) , Ã¢â¬ appeared that the later is the most progressive manner to be explored for learning composing free composing successfully. This would be more obvious after understanding the definitions of the two. Since composing free composing could be defined as the degree of understanding that authorship is a critical country of the school course of study, a complex activity that includes the mechanics of authorship, including script ( or keyboarding, utilizing an adaptative device ) , spelling, and the rudimentss of linguisti c communication cognition ( i.e. , word morphology, sentence structure, and vocabulary ) . In add-on, it includes the undermentioned cognitive, meta-cognitive, self-regulatory, and motivational facets including: ( bring forthing thoughts to set into script or print, be aftering what to state and how to state it, forming the thoughts into a consistent whole, acknowledging the demands of readers and how to run into those demands, interpreting these programs into a written text, including a manner of authorship and word pick appropriate to the authorship undertaking and projected readers, retrieving all of the constituents that need to be included in bring forthing the composing, self-monitoring the procedure and reexamining the content, organisation, and mechanics and so redacting as needed possessing the cognitive capacity to cover with all of these facets of complexness, possessing the assurance, motive, and doggedness to prosecute in the difficult work needed to make a good written merchandise ) . In add-on, authorship is an of import portion of pupils Ã¢â¬Ë lives after school, where many employers insist that employees should possess well-developed communicating accomplishments including composing accomplishments Ã¢â¬â a assortment of other intents are served by composing and developing composing capableness. There are several ways that authorship is of import in our lives: As a part to the development of a individual, no affair what that individual Ã¢â¬Ës background and endowments are, composing is a extremely complex act that demands the analysis and synthesis of many degrees of thought. Writing develops enterprises. In reading, everything is provided. In authorship, the scholar must provide everything: the right relationship between sounds and letters, the order of the letters and their signifier on the page, the subject, information, inquiries, replies, and order. Writing develops bravery. At no point is the scholar more vulnerable than in authorship and /or speech production. Writing, more than any other topic, can take to personal discoveries in acquisition. Writing can lend to reading from the first twenty-four hours of school. Writing, some say, is active, whereas reading is inactive. Writing contributes strongly to reading comprehension, as kids grow up. The ability to revise composing for greater power and economic system is one of the higher signifiers of reading. To appreciate the connexion between good thought and good authorship, the pupil needs to see composing as something other than distinct spots of information to be studied and stored in memory ( Bean, 1996, p. 17 ) . In other words, pupils need to larn to believe critically about authorship and the universe, to measure information and make an educated sentiment about it, non simply accept it at face value. Students today live in an information-driven society. The challenge for them is to larn how to measure and utilize that information to happen the significance in the cognition, so that the cognition can successfully be applied to new state of affairss. When the pupil writes to larn what he or she thinks, he or she is practising critical thought in its basic signifier. A missive to a comparative, a note to a friend, and a diary entry are all illustrations of the Ã¢â¬Å" authorship to larn theory Ã¢â¬ if the pupil discovers what he or she thinks as he or she is composing. Write to larn assignments capitalise on pupils Ã¢â¬Ë anterior cognition and coerce them to measure that cognition in order to make meaningful, individualized decisions. Hence, such assignments allow pupils to construct on anterior cognition in order to come on to the following cognitive degree of adulthood. Furthermore, compose to larn schemes by and large utilize Bloom Ã¢â¬Ës Taxonomy of Educational Objectives ( 1956 ) , specifically the degrees of application, analysis, rating, and synthesis. Critical thought authorship is the coin of the kingdom here. It permeates the whole atmosphere instead than being compartmentalized into a individual class or slapped on as a series of accomplishments. I believe composing is the tool of thought. The best manner to larn to believe is to read a batch of good authorship and compose a batch about what you have read. Writing and the communicating of thoughts are cardinal to all subjects whether one is in school or the workplace. One of the most of impo rt accomplishments in the digital age is composing, in fact, one of the oldest. On the other manus critical thought is the procedure of actively analysing, measuring, and synthesising information gathered from a assortment of beginnings, utilizing a model designed to impart construction and lucidity to the thought procedure, so, nil is more relevant as an attack for learning composing free composing than what is worldly renowned as Critical Thinking. Critical authorship, at least does non let word acknowledgment to be hard, and if it does, pupils will utilize excessively much of their processing capacity to compose single words, which interferes with their ability to grok what they have written. Students need to see the instructor patterning the patterns for composing. Then they need to be instructed in guided pattern, in which the instructor helps, but finally turns over the modeling to the pupils, separately and in larning partnerships. This is indispensable for pupils to grok the subject. They must pattern composing accomplishments, utilizing different beginnings that they like and are of the appropriate degree for them. Anyhow, the subject of learning pupils to believe while composing Ã¢â¬Å" critical authorship Ã¢â¬ should be cardinal to any treatment of believing accomplishments, in portion because the authorship of any subject dramas such a outstanding function in the content Fieldss.1.1 Statement of the Problem:Many scholars and instructors likewise have nagged that the format of jobs in the schoolroom, peculiarly in scientific topics, bears small resemblance to the manner jobs look in existent life. What is the job? Where does it lie? How does it go on? Why does it for good reiterate? The absence of learning composing free composing critically is one of the obstructions that emerge beyond the replies. In fact, one of the most of import practical thought accomplishments one can get from critical authorship is to cognize how to place and work out a job. From the clip of Grecian philosophers to modern-day epoch, concerns about the demand for an educated people and quality work force, the ability to believe critically and to ground good have been regarded as an of import and necessary result of instruction. Learning to believe is the cardinal intent of instruction, because Critical Thinking calls for relentless attempt to analyze any belief or supposed signifier of cognition in the visible radiation of the grounds that supports it and the farther decisions to which it tends. It requires an ability to acknowledge jobs, to happen ways to undertake those jobs, to garner relevant information, to acknowledge unexpressed premises and values, to grok and utilize linguistic c ommunication with truth, lucidity, and favoritism, to construe informations, to measure grounds and evaluate statements, to retrace one Ã¢â¬Ës forms of beliefs on the footing of wider experience, and to render accurate opinions. Educators are non entirely in acknowledging the importance of critical thought. The demands of employment in a planetary economic system, the endurance of a democratic manner of life and personal determination devising in a complex and quickly altering society, require people who can ground good and do good opinions. As our state is traveling towards a technology-based economic system confronting world-wide competition, employers demand workers that can believe flexibly and analytically integrate information from a assortment of beginnings and positions, and do profitable determinations. Sudan has a pluralistic society demands citizens who can open-mindedly measure the relevancy of different position on complex jobs. For pupils, workers, and citizens, crit ical thought is an indispensable tool for executing successfully in a complex and quickly changing universe. Teaching critical thought for both native talkers and foreign scholars, manipulate such obstructions by enabling one to analyze the factors encroaching on a state of affairs, forecast the results of possible classs of action, evaluate those results and weigh them relative to one another and seek to take so as to maximise positive results and minimise negative 1s. Furthermore, the beliefs people hold, and accordingly the illations they subsequently make and attitudes they subsequently assume, depend in portion on their logical thinking about the evidences for those beliefs. Despite widespread looks of concern about developing critical minds, surveies have shown that most schools are neither ambitious pupils to believe critically about academic topic, nor assisting them develop the logical thinking abilities needed to cover successfully with complexnesss of modern life. This be cause effectual direction for utilizing critical thought in instruction is non yet happening on a wide graduated table although critical thought is widely lauded as one of the most critical educational ends today.1.2 Aims of the Survey:1 Ã¢â¬â To measure through empirical observation the effectivity of utilizing critical thought in learning composing free composing on pupils abilities to compose critically about every subject issues and on the pupils temperaments toward critical thought in general. 2 Ã¢â¬â To develop abilities needed to compose critically to happen out about life demands in general, e.g. interpretation and incorporating information from different beginnings and constructing and reasoning a instance to explicate grounds as accepted. 3 Ã¢â¬â To utilize those same abilities for mundane written undertakings and be able to discourse why authorship is so of import. 4 -To have an apprehension of and be able to utilize critically the chief standards of good essay authorship. 5 -To be cognizant of the basic proficient and stylistic considerations involved in composing. Of all facets of analyzing, composing is likely the most ambitious. That is because when we write down an history of our thoughts for other people to read we have to explicate ourselves peculiarly carefully. We can non do the mental spring we do when we are in conversation with others or believing about something for ourselves. 6 Ã¢â¬â To do our significance clear, utilizing merely words on a page, we have to work out precisely what we think about the topic. We come to understand it for ourselves in the procedure of explicating it to others. Therefore, composing makes us truly cope with what we are analyzing. In other words, it forces us into a really deep and powerful sort of acquisition. That is what makes it so demanding. When we write we are truly seting thoughts to utilize. In composing we have done antecedently, we may hold Ã¢â¬Ëtaken in Ã¢â¬Ë thoughts from books, articles, Television and so on. However, it is merely when we can utilize these thoughts to state something for ourselves that we have truly Ã¢â¬Ëlearned Ã¢â¬Ë them. Ideas merely become a properly functioning portion of our thought-processes when we can name on them as we communicate with other people. It is really valuable to debate issues with other pupils in treatment groups. Nevertheless, an even more fastidious manner of util izing thoughts in statement is to make it in composing. A cardinal portion of utilizing thoughts efficaciously is to be able to compose clearly and persuasively. In our society, this is a really valuable accomplishment. It puts us on a much better picking with other people if we can show our point of position forcefully in composing. Possibly we started out on our surveies with the thought merely of larning more about art, music, or history, but we may detect that one of the most valuable things we gain is the ability to compose much more efficaciously. Whether we start with a instead weak composing manner or a reasonably good developed one, there is ever plentifulness of advancement to be made. So composing tends to be both the most demanding and the most rewarding portion of any class of survey. In add-on, because it contributes so much to what we learn, we have to set a batch of our clip and energy into it. 7- To separate the important difference between the groups of pupils who receive critical authorship in learning composing free subjects, and those who do non. 8- To reenforce the relationship between the scholars and the linguistic communication by actuating them to make their best to larn it in reacting to what the prophesier Mohammed ( Peace Be Upon Him ) said about larning foreign linguistic communications.1.3 The Significance of the Study1- The research worker is traveling to cast some visible radiations on the jobs that encounter the pupils and instructors while composing free composing. 2- Teaching composing free composing throughout critical thought will supply distinguishable advantages over more traditional attacks and techniques. 3- This survey is for the benefit of both pupils who suffer from still being merely inactive receptors in composing free composing and the instructors who are in demand to be reminded to research this manner based on the recommendations and findings regarded to the course of study interior decorators.1.4 Questions of the Survey:Based on the statement of the job, this survey sought to reply the undermentioned inquiries. 1. Will a group of pupils who receives explicit learning in analysing and construing jobs harmonizing to critical thought theoretical account perform better on a trial that requires them to analyse and synthesise a set of primary beginnings than a group of similar pupils non having such specifications? 2. To what extent will a group of pupils who receives preparation and utilizing of critical authorship theoretical account performs better on a undertaking necessitating rating of the subject subject than a group of similar pupils non having direction in critical authorship? 3. Will a group of pupils who receives developing in critical authorship differ in their attitudes and temperaments towards critical thought from a group of similar pupils non having expressed direction in critical authorship? 4. Will at that place be a statistically important difference in pupil public presentation by method of direction harmonizing to age? 5. Will at that place be a statistically important difference in pupil public presentation by method of direction harmonizing to gender? 6. To what extent is the construct of critical thought illuminated by those within rational history concerned with bettering the general quality of the pupils Ã¢â¬Ë ideas? 7. How can critical thought be adopted to advance scholars linguistic communication?1.5 The Study Hypotheses: ( modified by Dr. Madani )There will be a important difference between the quality of the authorship of the pupils who use critical thought accomplishments in the procedure of authorship ( experimental group ) and the quality of the authorship of the pupils who do non utilize critical thought accomplishments ( control group. ) This will be achieved by proving the undermentioned research hypotheses: Teachers think that it is likely that the usage of critical thought accomplishments will excite pupils and better their thought and authorship ( CWC ) more than the usage of other traditional methods of learning authorship ( Non Ã¢â¬â CWC ) . Teachers enjoy the usage of critical thought accomplishments in authorship. Teachers think that the usage of critical thought creates a more restful and concerted ambiance in the schoolroom. Teachers will experience confident, competent and execute good in the schoolroom as a consequence of being trained in learning critical thought accomplishments.1.6 The Scope of the Survey:Using critical thought in learning composing free composing to Sudanese secondary schools pupils is the survey which will be conducted and done in ( Al-Qabbas Diplomatic Secondary School for male childs ) and ( Al-Qabbas Diplomatic Secondary School for misss ) by the research worker. The research worker will establish the survey on his old experiments and observations in learning Writing Free Composition in secondary schools in Sudan and Saudi Arabia during the old ages ( 1995 Ã¢â¬â 2009 ) . This survey is devoted to the description of the methodological analysis used to look into the usage of Critical Thinking in Teaching Writing Free Composition. The research worker conducted limited experiments during the mentioned above old ages. Questionnaire, pre-test and post-test are used for informations evocation and analysis. The experimenter himself manipulates the tool narrowly. Students were tested after they have been taught indiscriminately by two different methods ( conventional group and experimental group ) where Teaching Writing Free Composition critically is used within a narrow range.1.7 Terminology of the Survey:Calcium: Communicative Approach Connecticut: Critical Thinking CWC: Critical Writing Classs CWFC: Critical Writing Free Composition. ELT: English Language Teaching. Non-CWC: Non- Critical Writing Classs Thallium: Transportation of Language
Saturday, September 28, 2019
Business law - Essay Example What type of business organization has Alpha and Beta formed? To whom, if anyone, is Alpha liable? To whom, if anyone, is Beta liable? The business type formed by the two partnerships is a limited liability company which is not fully a partnership or a corporation. Since the two partnerships did not have any form of agreement as it was a onetime business deal, then each of the members has limited partnership. This type of business organization ensures the members have limited liability and especially on their personal property (Reuting 28). The limited liability however is not applicable where one of the members commits fraud or personally guarantees to repay a debt and later on refutes this claim. In case of personal business that are not linked to the company arises, then liability will be for only the member implicated and not for the rest of the members in the Limited Liability Company (the limited liability does not apply in such a case). Both Alpha and Beta committed fraud, however the frauds committed were different and hence the difference in liability. In the case of Alpha, the fraud was committed against a company that was to provide paper for printing the book that the two partnerships were producing and hence will be liable to both Beta and the printing paper company (Gamma Printing Supplies, Inc). Beta Publications which committed fraud against Delta Literary Agency which was producing articles for its magazine will be liable only to the agency alone and not to Alpha Communications as well. This is so because the agency does is not part of their one-time deal unlike the paper printing
Friday, September 27, 2019
Missions to Nicaragura - Research Paper Example Solving the problems faced by the people of Nicaragua as well as improving their life was the main aim of the mission groups. One of the mission groups is a BIMI mission group. The BIMI for Nicaragua is a Baptist international mission group that started its mission work in 1962. The mission group was started by Bob and Sabina Dayton. The main aim of BIMI mission group is to bring together and support missionaries and mission projects that were still going on in Nicaragua (BIMI, 2003). The group supported different mission groups in order for them to be in a position to serve better the people of Nicaragua. Another mission group is Nicaragua mission project which is a Christian movement mission that started in 1960s as a ministry to prisoners. The mission started with the name Ã¢â¬Å"the Christian mission in the jailsÃ¢â¬ , and their founders were Rev Marceline Davila Castillo, a pastor in assemblies of God and Antonio Martinez who belonged to church of Nazarene. The groupÃ¢â¬â¢s objective is to solve the problems faced by residents of this country by improving their life (Lubensky, 1999). The mission group goals were to build churches in order to spread the gospel and reach to people in all areas in that country. The group aimed at reinforcing ecumenical associations as well as promoting growth of churches as well as their communities. The group is a combination of various organizations such as CEPAD (Evangelical council of Nicaragua), Latin American council of churches, Disciples of Christ, united church of Christ and Christian Pentecostal church of Cuba. It has partnered with worldwide ministries for many years. The mission group started their mission by building churches, building bible schools for the people of Nicaragua and creating childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s programs (Baptist International Missions Inco, 2003). In its mission work, the missionary
Thursday, September 26, 2019
Proposed project intervention on geriatric patients - Coursework Example The selected organization, BT Hospital, is a hospital that has a Geriatric Department that cares for older adults in its South Dublin region. In the Geriatric Department, there is a wide variety of professionals that do various tasks ranging from administrative jobs, physiotherapy, social work, dietician and other medical staff. In the Department, a Clinical Nurse that specializes in Gerontology was appointed a week ago to deal with the growing number of patients in the hospital. The hospital dates back to the 1990s and ever since, it has been expanding its size and improving the services to its clients. However since the geriatric patients require fast and convenient care, the Geriatric Department in BT Hospital suffers a great deal since the nurses may be said to not being equipped with the required competencies, knowledge and the skills that may be useful in assessing and managing the risks that the geriatric patients may face within the care setting. In as much the nurses are qua lified, they are very young and experience has been indicated to be among the finest ways of practicing acquired knowledge. The BT Hospital applies the Bureaucratic organizational structure that involves different layers of management that run from the top management to the lowest management. Yoder-Wise (2013) explains that bureaucratic organizations since bureaucratic organizations have different layers of management, the procedures in such an organization are very rigid and this structure rarely appreciates the need for change.
Wednesday, September 25, 2019
Explain the position of Dualism and physicalism - Essay Example This philosophical thought has been applied for instance in the mind-body relation to claim that a human being is a physical system with the central nervous system and brain without a mind or soul (Crumley 5). For instance, physicalists postulate that the mind or soul is not an immaterial substance but occurs in physical form that is consisted of cells at one level which can be broken down further into atoms at their smallest level. This makes the mind and the brain to be same substance in an outlay where the mind is a consequence of neural connections. This positioning of the mind and the brain based on the assumptions make in physicalism means that damage to the brain translates to the same damage in the mind. This is true for example in the case of the brain which contains multiple elongated cells referred to as neurons whose function is to carry specific impulses. Contacts between neurons take place through points of contact named synapses. A specific neuron in the human nervous system is the C-fibers whose function is to supply the skin with nerves and transmit pain impulses. According to Physicalist, when a person experiences an occasion of pain or occurrence of a thought these are believed to be physical events related to C-fibers transmitting or certain electrical and chemical events taking place in the brain and central nervous system (Crumley 64). Apart from the assumption that the mind and brain are the same, another condition of physicalism is based on the belief that the physical world is causally closed. The thesis of causal closure fundamentally argues that any physical event must equally have a physical cause. This assumption by the Physicalists means that for every occurrence in world, there must be an explanation on the basis of causal interactions occurring at the physical level. Therefore, this worldview is
Tuesday, September 24, 2019
Philosophy Movie Paper Apocalypto - Essay Example The religion of the Mayan culture is portrayed through the life of the people and especially through that of the young hunter Jaguar Paw. It is seen throughout the movie and it will be really hard for one to fail to notice it. Violence to protect the family, dreams, visions and honoring gods all show the religious faith of the Mayan people. In the opening scene where Jaguar Paw, his father and other people are hunting in the forest is a show of religious faith. They are hunting for forest food and as we learnt in the lecture, this makes me believe that the Mayan people have got a connection with forest animals and the forest itself. They all take care and live well with the forest, animals and the land. By Jaguar Paw sharing the organs of their kill with other people so as to share to the whole village shows that they have got respect for the animals and use them economically. When they encountered another tribe fleeing, Jaguar Paw is worried. His thoughts are not at ease and it is not difficult for his wife to notice. This shows a connection between a man and his wife. He later at night gets a vision of the leader of the fleeing tribe and this act like a warning to Jaguar about the attack (Carter 66). Jaguar Paws father told him that his father hunted in that forest and Jaguar and his son should also live hunt in the same forest. Although Jaguar had difficulties of overcoming fear as it is shown when he runs from his pursuant, his fatherÃ¢â¬â¢s words Ã¢â¬Å"not to fearÃ¢â¬ help him realize that with fear he was not going to rescue his wife and son or even avenge the death of his father. The kind of courage that Jaguar Paw gets from the words of his dead father is a rare kind to find today. He takes a very difficult decision not to run and by convincing himself that he knew this forest better gives him great courage. He thinks of his family and how he will live with them in that forest and his son and him hunting in it and dares
Monday, September 23, 2019
Activity-Based Costing vs Traditional Costing - Essay Example The other difference between the two methods is that activity based costing is accurate because it accounts for significant issues before it allocates cost to a given product. Contra wise the traditional costing is not accurate because it only considers specific products.Activity based costing demonstrates the cost of a product cross-subsidization challenge in cases where some products costs are higher and also when other products costs are lower as compared to the traditional method produced costing. The ABC regularly demonstrates that other products cost are highly costed while others are under coasted, hence resulting in crossing subsidization.Activity based is used to progress profitability through analyzing first the clients demand products, customers may require little or considerable support. Therefore, ABC helps in determining different amounts of customerÃ¢â¬â¢s activities be supported, and their costs for each client benefit and, as a result, deciding customerÃ¢â¬â¢s pr ofitability. However, the customers benefit is determined after the consideration of the customers support. Some of the ABC disadvantages are that implementation is expensive and time-consuming to establish ABC system. The system requires more resources like software that could be costly and consultants with the necessary expertise. The other disadvantage is data misinterpretation due to challenges in interpreting ABC data with often accounting information, which can be at times tricky, regarding decision-making.
Sunday, September 22, 2019
Priciples of Software Engineering Essay Describe each law in your own words. Illustrate with a practical example ? GlassÃ¢â¬â¢ law Ã¢â¬Å"Requirement deficiencies are the prime source of project failures Coming to my explanation Glass law states that if the basic requirements of the projects is not constructed properly that may leads failure of the project. To achieve goals in the project it plays an vital role and any drawbacks may leads project unsuccessful. Around 20% of all IT project failures were caused by incomplete or badly managed requirements. Example: Technological University-Online Practical Tests In the case of technological university the requirements specifications for the online practical exams had been implemented without consulting students and university staff. This system was designed in such a way that students affliated to that university are write the test test online at the same day and same time. Considering the requirements of the colleges were different an the project objectives were different. This leads to failure of the that project. BoehmÃ¢â¬â¢s first law Ã¢â¬Å"Errors are most frequent during the requirements and design activities and are the more expensive the later they are removedÃ¢â¬ . Coming to my explanation BoehmÃ¢â¬â¢s law states that the basic designing of the projects mat leads to errors and miscalculations. The sooner you find a problem, the cheaper it is to fix , otherwise to detect the errors in the project is very expensive or complicated . This law is applicable from midrange systems. Example: City Council Ã¢â¬â Pay Roll System A city council developed a replacement payroll system believed that users had comprehensive knowledge of all the business requirements. But the current staff or IT team had participated in building the old system they had no knowledge of how it was built. That leads to many errors and it cause project failure. BoehmÃ¢â¬â¢s second law Ã¢â¬Å"Prototyping (significantly) reduces requirement and design errors, especially for user interfacesÃ¢â¬ . Coming to my explanation BoehmÃ¢â¬â¢s second law states that by prototype modelling the disigning of the project and errors can be reduced. To design the system the staff will be educated . So that that will increase the usability of the system among users. Example: In a postgraduation course prototype modelling experiments were conducted . Some of them were used requirement driven approach and others are prototyping approach. This will leads to satisfaction for the client compare to all other methods. DavisÃ¢â¬â¢ law Ã¢â¬Å"The value of a model depends on the view taken, but none is best for all purposesÃ¢â¬ . Coming to my explanation DaviÃ¢â¬â¢s law states that to describe systems requirements, it is very useful. This model is useful to solve the complicated tasks that other models find that difficult to solve. Example:In a system to solve the problems different methods were implemented. Each task follows their methodolgies to solve the problems. At the end all the methods got different results but there methodologies is useful to solve the problem. Your first task is to describe each software development methodology clearly and completely in your own words. You may use diagrams, examples or UML to help you do this. Waterfall Model : The waterfall model is a sequential software development process, in which progress is seen as flowing steadily downwards through the phases of conception, design, analysis, initiation ,testing and maintenance. This model is used in manufacturing industries and construction industries . It is ; highly structured physical environments in which after-the-fact changes are prohibitively costly, if not impossible. Since no formal software development methodologies existed at the time, this hardware-oriented model was simply adapted for software development. For example, one first completes requirements specification, which after sign-off are considered set in stone. When the requirements are fully completed, one proceeds to design. Spiral Model: The spiral model is a software development process combining elements of both design and prototyping-in-stages, in an effort to combine advantages of top-down and bottom-up concepts. Each phase starts with a design goal and ends with the client reviewing the progress . Analysis and engineering efforts are applied at each phase of the project, with an eye toward the end goal of the project. The spiral model might mean that you have a rough-cut of user elements as an operable application, add features in phases, and, at some point, add the final graphics. The Spiral model is used most often in large projects and needs constant review to stay on target. It can get their hands in and start working on a project earlier. Q3) Using the first four laws of the text, show where these are either implemented or missing in each software development methodology (Total Two). If a law is missing, explain the consequences and suggest how the process might be improved. Water Fall Model GlassÃ¢â¬â¢ law Requirement deficiencies are the prime source of project failures. The end users gathered by requirements in waterfall model. It states that the basic requirements of the projects is not constructed properly that may leads failure of the project. The failures were caused by incomplete or badly managed requirements. BoehmÃ¢â¬â¢s first law Ã¢â¬Å"Errors are most frequent during the requirements and design activities and are the more expensive the later they are removedÃ¢â¬ . It basic designing of the projects mat leads to errors and miscalculations. In waterfall model this law cannot be able to correct the errors. This law is not reliable for waterfall model. BoehmÃ¢â¬â¢s second law Prototyping (significantly) reduces requirement and design errors, especially for user interfacesÃ¢â¬ . This law cannot be able to correct the errors in waterfall model. The design phase would be reduced by prototype modelling. DavisÃ¢â¬â¢ law Ã¢â¬Å"The value of a model depends on the view taken, but none is best for all purposesÃ¢â¬ . The purpose of this model is not suitable for this law. Spiral Model GlassÃ¢â¬â¢ law Ã¢â¬Å"Requirement deficiencies are the prime source of project failures In waterfall model risk analysis is conducted on the prototype. By this if they need any requirement it will included in next stage. BoehmÃ¢â¬â¢s first law Ã¢â¬Å"Errors are most frequent during the requirements and design activities and are the more expensive the later they are removedÃ¢â¬ . In spiral model each phase starts with a design goal and ends with the client reviewing the progress . The risks were eliminated after number of stages. BoehmÃ¢â¬â¢s second law Ã¢â¬Å"Prototyping (significantly) reduces requirement and design errors, especially for user interfacesÃ¢â¬ . In spiral model it will design the prototype. and construct and design the prototype. The analysis and engineering efforts are applied at each phase of the project.
Saturday, September 21, 2019
Evolution in SkyscraperÃ¢â¬â¢s Design Essay The term skyscraper in early times was commonly used in marine services to describe the high erected mast of a ship. This term was coined later to refer to storey buildings. Previously the term referred to very tall buildings of ten to twenty storeys but in the recent past the term now includes high-rises of forty to fifty storeys or even more. However, for a building to be termed as a skyscraper, it should be distinct from other surrounding buildings in its striking feature of high elevation and markedly affecting the normal view of skyline when looked across through its high rise due to its obstruction (Moudry, 2005 pp. 16-18). Evolution of skyscrapers Evolution of skyscrapers can be traced back to early Babylonian civilization with the Tower of Babel erected in the Babylon which was the first city to be established after great flood as it is given in the Biblical narrative, historical context and other extracanonical sources. Down the line, there has been erection of some tall buildings in different cities of the world but have not been such remarkable as those from the beginning of nineteenth century. Prior to this time, relatively tall buildings used to exist that basically employed use of masonry as the oldest material. The 19th Century structural system technological developments have been hallmark to the emergence of super tall buildings in the world. These new advancements from masonry which were the oldest material all through steel work era to use of composite construction have seen the erection of super tall buildings such as the Petronas Towers and the Jin Mao building that we see today. The City Hall in Philadelphia is the tallest masonry building in the world. It is 167 M (548 ft). It was completed in 1901 using masonry bricks and stones. But this technique could not easily allow construction of super tall buildings seen in todayÃ¢â¬â¢s world because stone and bricks heavy weights were the limiting factor. The first skyscraper was steel- framed ten storeys known as Your Home Insurance Building in Chicago built by Illiam Le Barion Jenney, an engineering officer in 1885. Your Home Insurance Building was among the first buildings to use metal for support. After some sixteen years later, the first concrete 15 storey skyscraper known as Ingalls Building in Cincinnati, Ohio was erected by Elzner, O. A. It had integration of twisted steel bars with concrete as frame with slabs and concrete exterior walls (Haverstock et al, 2000 pp. 105-108). This was a remarkable stride in the realm of construction by 20th Century. However, more improvement in concrete technology has continued to be realized. The innovations of lightweight concrete material enable construction of tall buildings. The One Shell Plaza built in Texas in early 1970s which has 52 stories is a good example of tallest lightweight structure in the world. It can be observed that from early skyscrapers constructors, the technological evolutions were partly necessitated by the dictates of human needs such as residential and office apartmentÃ¢â¬â¢s architectural arrangements so as to meet people needs wholesomely (Wright, 2007 pp. 77-80). Structural developments have even made it easier to meet these increasingly new demands by innovation of framed tabular structural systems. This has facilitated construction of many stories building. This is because they give three-dimensional robust framework that is able to resist mechanical stresses and compressions. Presently, skyscrapers constructions make use of steel; reinforced concrete, granite and glass. Many of skyscrapers in ancient times were found in parts o f Chicago, New York and London towards close to 19th Century. Today, skyscrapers are not limited to these regions alone, but are found even in Asian continent. In the New York City, at the beginning of 20th Century it was the center of the Beaux Arts architectural movement that made it so progressive having been graced with great architects that enabled it to be land of outstanding skyscrapers in the world. It is generally observed that skyscrapers since the past were associated with elements of nationÃ¢â¬â¢s power and economic status. This is because the nature of super tall building built largely depends on the financial capabilities, technological advancements and man power which reflects nationÃ¢â¬â¢s supremacy and hence its pride. In about last two decades skyscraper designs are taking latest architectural designs that include former designs but with characteristic features of the geographic elements of where these structures built such as cultural designs like Arabic arts as exhibited in Burj Dubai skyscraper which is yet to be completed. It is evident that, apart from innovations in structural system, geographical changes also markedly did affect the evolution of skyscraper designing especially in twentieth century. Early architects of skyscrapers as it can be seen in World Trade Center, as an example, assumed geometrical shapes like that of a box.
Friday, September 20, 2019
Effectiveness of Student Internship Introduction. The purpose of this study is to describe an internship program targeted at adolescents and aimed at addressing the competences needed. This study involved three main stakeholders: scholars, educators and employers engaged in the internship program. The intent is to gain a better understanding of how each group works together to equip scholars with the relevant college and career readiness competences and meet employer competences needs. Examining the experiences of scholars, employers and educators engaged in internships will reveal how such programs can enhance college and career readiness among scholars and address employer competences needs. Developing a rich descriptions of the structure and organization of the program establish the context for the internship and provided insights into the challenges and opportunities of those engaged in the program. This proposal will use a qualitative case study method (Creswell, 2013, Yin, 2009, Merriam, 1998) to explore internships and to guide the data collection, analysis and the reporting of the study. Components addressed in this section will be: (a) research design; (b) data collection and analysis; (c) ethical considerations to ensure validity and trustworthiness of the study. Qualitative studies provide richness and holism to the analysis of the phenomenon under study (Miles Huberman, 1994) and since such studies occur inÃ natural settings, researchers can examine a phenomenon within its context. A qualitative method enables the researcher to understand the meaning and purpose that individuals ascribe to their activities, (Guba Lincoln, 1994) by finding out intangible factors and contextualizing the participants experiences. Also, qualitative research affords the researcher an opportunity to understand an issue or phenomenon that cannot be easily quantified (Creswell, 2013). A qualitative method is suited for exploring the phenomenon of internships within the context of the program which is geared towards equipping adolescents with industry-relevant competences and addressing employer competences needs. Conducting a case study on internships within the context of a local organization and examining this intersection of employers, scholars, and educator s will enabled the researcher gain a holistic understanding of their experiences. It will also allowed the researcher to delve into the complexities and subtleties of the phenomenon and provide an opportunity to explore policy, knowledge and practice as they relate to internship programs. Creswell (2009) defines qualitative research as, a means for exploring and understanding the meaning individuals or groups ascribe to a social or human problem. Qualitative research is further discussed by Merriam (2009), researchers are fascinated in understanding how people interpret their experiences, how they construct their worlds, meaning they attribute to their experiences. A qualitative case study method is determined to be the best method to get the information needed to answer the research question and sub-questions. Qualitative research allows the researcher to study participants in their natural setting in order to make sense of or to interpret a phenomena in terms of the meanings the p eople bring to them, (Denzin Lincoln, 2000). Audience Purposeful sampling will be to select the participants for this study. In purposeful sampling, the researcher selects individuals and a site to study because they can purposefully inform the understanding of the research problem and central phenomenon (Creswell, 2013). This study will be conducted as a single instrumental and embedded case study and focused on a high school internship programs in a local school district in a western part of North Carolina in the foothills of the Blue Ridge Mountains in the United States during the 2016-2017 scholastic year. Several participants will be included in this study. The participants in the study will agree to take part on the condition that their identities would be protected. Thus, pseudonyms will be assigned to each of them to help maintain confidentiality. The following paragraphs will include the three units of analysis (the employer, the scholars and the educators) and provide a summarized biography of each participant. Three units of analysis will be examinded. Unit of Analysis 1: The scholars (teens) internship program within the organization. Unit of Analysis 2: Educators high school setting. Unit Analysis 3: Employers involved in the internship program. Examination of Philosophical Assumptions and Interpretive Frameworks. It is beneficial for consumers of research to understand the philosophical assumptions of the researcher in relation to reality (ontology) and the nature of knowledge (epistemology) and the values that underpin the research process (Merriam, 2009; Creswell, 2013; Glesne, 2010). Beliefs about the world and what reality is (ontology) are influenced by factors such as worldview which determine the kinds of questions why answers are sought. These factors determine what is being reality (Creswell, 2013; Glesne, 2011). My ontological belief is that reality is known through my participation with theÃ different participants in the internship program as each participant would presentÃ multiple realities based on their views, experiences, worldviews, and contexts. Thus,Ã when studying individuals, it is considerable to understand that reality is subjective as seen through many views, and my intent as the researcher should be to report the multipleÃ views of participants as presented. Creswell (2013) explained that epistemologicalÃ beliefs help the researcher determine what counts as knowledge. This knowledge isÃ gained by getting close to the participants to understand their views and experiences. My epistemological stance required that I conduct my research in the participantsÃ environments to gain a holistic understanding of internship and how theÃ participants contexts and experiences bore upon the phenomenon. By getting close to the participants and listening to them with an open mi nd, I understood their knowledge claims. My choice of research method enabled me to study an internship within the context of an organization to understand the experiences andÃ perceptions of the participants.Ã From an axiological standpoint, qualitative research is value laden as researchers bring their values and biases to bear on a study and how findings are interpreted (Creswell 2013; Glesne, 2011). Dahlberg, Drew and Nystrom (2001) thus encouraged researchers to adopt an open stance and be receptive to information about the phenomenon under study as it is presented as this allows researchers to see things in a new way. In view of that, my duty as a researcher required that I maintain an open stance and make myself available to what I was studying and be willing to listen and understand what I was being told with no judgment on my part. It is considerable that I suspended my assumptions and be open to learning from participants and not make any assumptions about what my participants knew or did. Through my extensive review and my experiences with the concept of internships, I will monitor my assumptions and biases and separate them from the data being presented by my participants. I had to be cognizant of how my previous knowledge about internships could influence my interpretation of the data. To prevent this from happening, I endeavored to jot down my feelings and perceptions about the information I received. Besides, gaining more insights into the phenomenon, adopting an open stance enabled me to identify dissenting views and report such evidence in this study, enriching the study with information that could be beneficial to the different stakeholders fascinated in internships. The social constructivist or interpretivist framework (Creswell 2013) guided the interpretation of the study. Through this viewpoint, I strove to co-construct the meaning of the world where the participants lived and worked. Given the varied factors that influence the success of internships, it is considerable to uncover the complexity of views that each of the participants held as their views would be informed by the context in which they worked, the resources available to them, and the cultural, economic and political environments in which participants found themselves. It is through my interaction with the participants I could explore and describe the role of internships in enhancing college and career readiness competences and to address employer competences needs. As a result, the knowledge I gained and my findings were co-created with my participants. Due to the value-laden nature of research, myÃ background and values could influence the interpretations I make throughout the Ã study. Thus, to ensure credibility and trustworthiness in my research, my valuesÃ and role as a researcher and what influenced my interest to this topic and research isÃ discussed in the next subsection. My Role as a Researcher My interest in internship programs for high school scholars stems from my readings and scholarly work as a graduate student that focused on workforce development and the need to address the competences gaps in the labor market. My interest is initially stimulated during my new position as a career development coordinator with Career and Technical Education. The notion of internship is personal as I raised in Parkton, North Carolina. In the educational system, attainment of a college degree is seen as the only path to success. However, the educational system and available resources privilege only a few scholars who are able to achieve a college degree. A large population of the scholars neither has a college degree nor gains any employable competences after high school. Although introducing technical vocational education and training systems allows for internship training in the secondary school system, there are minimal partnerships with core industries that can help scholars and drive the economy. Therefore, there is little realization of the economic that enjoys these programs since most of the training is for low impact industries resulting in low wages and with little interest to scholars. As compared to countries with well-established internship systems where public policy, education, industry and scholar interest are aligned to be nefit all stakeholders, these elements do not integrate well in a place like Parkton, NC. I hope that this research will shed better understanding of how such elements integrate and can be refined and adapted to meet different contexts. Most of the literature I reviewed showed a need to focus on high schools to attract scholars into internships. I realized through scholarly readings and experiences that the concept of internship had been an ongoing initiative in the United States for many years. However, with the push for college and higher education, the focus of training individuals to enter the labor market had shifted to formal schooling over the years. Despite the rise in formal schooling, changes in educational policies aimed towards a better educated workforce to meet the needs of the 21st century labor market do not show how the perpetual competences gap among labor market candidates can be fully addressed. This is evident from the concerns expressed by employers that a large proportion of American scholars graduating from high school enter the labor market with n o knowledge of relevant competences-scholastic, technical or career-related-to succeed (Stone Lewis, 2012). As stakeholders seek to address the problem of competences gaps, internship programs have re-emerged as a possible career pathway, despite their controversial implementations in the past which had resulted in varying degrees of success or failure. The problem with the internship system in the United States is that programs are arbitrary and discrete, with the averaging internship participant age about 27 years when they enter the programs. Also, many young adults stumble into internships to last resort, only to find out that those internships offered a stable and consistent career through the acquisition of industry-relevant competences. This topic is considerable because in the communities where I have lived, many kids were left behind when they failed to pursue the traditional scholastic route. I also believe such programs, when well thought out and coordinated, may offer a possible way out and a means to advancement in peoples lives. On a personal level, I enjoy the scholastic stimulation of engaging and sharing my ideas and research which can impact society. It is my belief that when supported with the right resources and vested stakeholders, internships can offer our young people a sense of purpose and meaning. They also provide several professional and personal benefits to those stakeholders who pursue them such as the organizations that sponsor and hire these Internships. Instruments Data Collection Procedures. In this study, the data will be collected primarily through interviews with participants and supplemented with observations and document review. Interviewing participants is an ideal and considerable tool since it allows the researcher to gain insights into the feelings and thoughts that are not readily observed and are usually the most considerable tool in qualitative research (Merriam, 2009; Patton, 2002). An interview protocol will be developed using semi-structured interviews to aid in organizing ideas and ensuring that vital questions were not missed. Individual, face- to- face interviews will be attempted and additional information will be gathered through emails and phone conversations. The participants will be interviewed at different times and in different locations. Data collection will involve a series of interrelated activities that adds depth and breadth to a study by producing the best answers needed to answer a research question (Creswell, 2013; Yin, 2009). In this study, the data will be collected primarily through interviews with participants and supplemented with observations and documents review. The interviews with the scholars will occur in their school instead of the worksite. With the consent of the principal and the scholars, the interviews with the interns will be scheduled during school period when they had elective classes such as aiding or study competences to not interfere with their core courses. The interview questions to the scholars will focus on their experiences as interns, lessons learned and their plans in relation to the program. The internships will provide insight into their perceptions of the program and the benefits and challenges involved. Interviews with the educators will be conduct at their respective schools and in the district coordinators office. The interview questions that will be posed to the educators will provide insights into the challenges and opportunities of the partnership program with the employer organization. Interviews with participants from the employer group will be conducted within the organization. Interview questions will focus on the reasons for starting the program, their experiences, challenges and opportunities in developing and implementing the program and overall goals of the program. At the beginning of each interview, I will explain the purpose of the study and the interview, reiterated how long the interviews will take and explained to participants their rights. The interviews will be structured to last only one hour. Creswell, 2013 suggested that a researcher use open ended, general and focused questions that are aimed at understanding the central phenomenon of a study. Most of the interview questions will be open-ended to generate rich information from participants. Probing statements and questions such as Tell me more, Can you explain further? or You had mentioned that and Can you elaborate on that? will be used elicit further information or clarify points made by participants. Each of the interviews will be recorded, transcribed and stored on a password-protected computer and an external hard drive. Creswell (2013) noted that the use of multiple sources of data is helpful in providing corroborative evidence for validating the accuracy of a study. Additional data will be collected through observations that I will conduct at the organization while the interns are at work. Data from observations typically include activities, actions and behaviors, while data from documents can include records, correspondence and official publications, photographs and other physical artifacts (Patton, 2002). During this time, I will observe activities, behavior and other observable experiences among the participants as they performed their daily routines. In addition, documents such as training manuals, internships handbooks and other materials will be analyzed to uncover more insights that would supplement interview data. I will also use field notes and journals to record insights and feelings useful in helping me understand and interpret my findings. An considerable part of the data collection process will involve developing a timeline so that the process would run smoothly. Due to the participants schedules, data will be collected over a three-month period. After identifying gatekeepers at the research site, I will meet with each of them to explain the purpose of the study and sought their approval to use their organizations as study sites. Once approval from the local school district has been received, letters of consent will be sent to each of the participants. Parental consent will be sought from parents of the scholars who are under 18 years of age. The signed letters of consent will be collected prior to the interviews. Due to the emergent design of a qualitative study, I will to remain flexible and adaptable to changing the method. Sales and Folkman (2000) explained that flexibility and tolerance are considerable attributes at the planning stage; therefore, when researchers are inflexibly wedded to a particular design that can hinder them from designing a plan that is scientifically and ethically sound, it can cause major ethical violations as researchers. This principle of flexibility was applied when adjustments were needed to accommodate the schedules of participants and when the inclusion of other participants was suggested. Once the interviews are completed, the data will be transcribed and folders will be created for each of the participants and labelled. A contact summary form will reflect on each interview and summarize the key points and trends identified in a particular interview. The next step in the analysis process will involve a review of the data to get a sense of it. This will enable the researcher to review pertinent information and to understand how each participants answers provided information to the research question. The data will then describe and be interpreted by forming categories that best represented the data. Creswell (2013) noted that this critical phase involves building detailed descriptions by describing what is seen and interpreting the data in light of the views or the perspectives in the literature. The next step involved coding the data by condensing the text and providing codes based on evidence from the database, a process that required appropriately describing the information collected. After identifying the themes in the data, the next step involved interpreting the data by abstracting the codes and themes to the larger meaning of the data (Creswell, 2013). Throughout the interpretation process, meanings will be attributed to the themes by grouping the information and relating those groups to the study questions and linking them to literature. Research Design. Case studies are appropriate when one is studying a contemporary, real life situation bounded in time and location (Creswell, 2013; Yin 2009). Yin (2009) noted that a case study design permits the researcher to interview the participants of the phenomenon under study (in this case, the internship programs) and observe first-hand the participants as involved in the study. Case studies involve rich, contextual descriptions that allow the researchers to study internal and external factors that influence a phenomenon. Although case studies are typically not generalizable, the value of case studies is that they provide a deeper and richer understanding of a phenomenon, suggest complexities for further investigations or refine theory, and help to establish the limits of generalizability (Yin, 2009). When done well, the case study can provide a vicarious experience that can support and action for a phenomenon (Creswell, 2013; Yin, 2009). By using a case study method, the ho pe is that this study will provide detailed information on how internships can be developed and advanced as a pedagogical method that enhance the competences needed by adolescents as they transition into adulthood and meet employer competences needs. Single Case Study. Multiple case studies are deemed preferable to single case studies because comparison from other examples provides valuable knowledge to the audience and are perceived to be more rigorous. However, Yin (2009) affirmed that a single case study is an appropriate design when the aim of the researcher is to describe an unusual case that deviates from everyday occurrences as the findings may reveal insights about a process or a program and provide value for large number of people beyond those impacted by the particular case. Yin (2009) explained that focusing on a single case offers readers and the researcher the opportunity to draw out the uniqueness of the case by providing a comprehensive understanding of all stakeholders impacted by the phenomenon. Regarding the current study, the study of a single internship program enabled the researcher to uncover the complexities of the program and understand how each of the stakeholders contributed to the goals of the study. In a similar vein, Stake (2000) alleged that when researchers focus on comparisons of multiple cases, uniqueness and complexities can be glossed over, because when readers are presented with other cases to compare with, they often focus on one case as readers and rarely learn much from other compared cases Yin (2009) suggested that subunits can be incorporated into the unit of analysis to create an embedded single case study design or to enhance the rigor of a single case study design. Thus, in the current study, the internship program within the using organization was identified as the unit of analysis. Embedded within the case was the taking part high school scholars and the district educational personnel. Although an embedded design adds richness and rigor, it is no t without pitfalls. Yin (2009) noted that to ensure an embedded designs trustworthiness, the researcher will need to tie the results of each of the subunits to the larger unit of analysis so the original phenomenon of interest (in this case, the internship program) remains the target of the study. Data Analysis. Qualitative studies produce volumes of data and to avoid getting lost in a sea of data, the data collection and data analysis process should be interwoven. This helps the researchers in managing the data and provides opportunities to identify gaps in their data collection (Creswell, 2012; Merriam, 2009). Once the interviews are completed, the data will be transcribed and folders for each of the participants created and labeled. A contact summary form will be used to reflect and summarize the key points and trends identified in a particular interview. The next step in the analysis process will involve a review of the data to get a sense of them. Yin (2009) referred to this process as playing with your data. The goal here is to immerse myself in the data to understand what was going on before proceeding to the next steps. This will enabled me to review pertinent information and to understand how each participants answers provided information to the research question. Aft er exploring the database to get a grasp on the data, I will inscribe and interprete the data by forming categories that best represented the data. Creswell (2013) noted that this critical phase involves building detailed descriptions by describing what is seen and interpreting the data in light of the views or the perspectives in the literature. The next step will involve coding the data by condensing the text and providing codes based on evidence from the data. Coding is an essential step in the analysis as it helps the researcher identify the major themes in the data and allows the emergent nature of qualitative research to evolve (Creswell, 2013; Yin, 2009). During this process, I will choose codes that appropriately described the information gleaned. After identifying the themes in the data, the next step involved interpreting the data by abstracting the codes and themes to the larger meaning of the data (Creswell, 2013). Throughout the interpretation process, I will attribute meanings to the themes by grouping the information and relating those groups to the study questions and linking them to literature. The tentative findings will be discussed with chair. The findings will then be further refined, and a draft report will be sent to the chair for their review and feedback. The data will then be presented in a table format to illustrate the different levels of abstraction (Creswell, 2013) and to outline how I arrived at the conclusion and results of the interpretation. The final report of the case study will then be included in a detailed description of the internship program and its context. Providing a history of the program will help to organize the data and provide the reader with a context within which the research study was conducted. It concluded with a description of the experiences of the stakeholders (employer, scholars and educators) and how those experiences influenced the implementation and operation of the program. Miles and Huberman (1994) noted that using interpretive and material sources in qualitative research makes the world visible to readers by turning the world i nto a series of representations including field notes, interviews and memorandums to self. Interviewed participants will tell their personal stories and will be encouraged to explain the actions and activities that occurred as the program evolved. Many of the findings will be told through the voices of the participants. Thus, direct quotes from the participants will be incorporated into the final report to reflect their voices. Methods for Verifications (Ethical Considerations). This section outlines steps that will be taken to ensure the trustworthiness and credibility of the study. Once the case was identified, I will connect with gatekeepers of the organizations involved to explain the purpose of the study and to gain access to the participants for the study. Prior to collecting data, approval was sought from Gardner Webb University. Approval will also be sought from the educational district office since the study included scholars from the district who are considered a protected group. To gain approval to begin the study, I will develope a consent form for participants and an assent form for the parents of internships under the age of 18. The form will describe the purpose of the study, its benefits to the participants, how much time would be spent collecting data and how the findings would be used. Participants will be notified of their rights to end their involvement in the study and measures that wou ld be taken to ensure confidentiality and anonymity. Due to my obligation as a researcher to protect the anonymity of participants, pseudonyms will be used. To gain an in-depth understanding of internships, their structure and organizations and the experiences of those living the phenomenon, it is considerable to spend a substantial amount of time in the field interviewing and observing the participants. While this is a necessary step, I have to be respectful of the participants time and make sure our meetings or interactions are completed at their convenience so as not to disrupt their lives. The prolonged engagement in the field was necessary to build trust with the study participants and to understand the nuances of the phenomenon. It helped me to identify issues salient to the study. To corroborate the findings and to ensure that researchers gains comprehensiveÃ information, Yin (2009) advised that researchers use diverse data gathering tools such as interview, observations, archival records and physical evidence where available. The process of triangulation is an ethical expectation that enables the researcher to illuminate a theme or perspective while ensuring the rigor and validity of the study (Creswell, 2013). Since the dissertation process is a solo process, it is considerable that I have debriefings and review sessions with my dissertation chair and peers whoÃ could provide an aim perspective and reveal any blind spots by asking me questionsÃ about my conclusions and assumptions. I will schedule meetings with my chair to provide him progress updates and to seek feedback from him.Ã Data collected will be stored on a password-protected computer and on an external hard drive. To maintain confidentiality, I will ensured that the information received from interviews is not shared with others without the consent of the participants. Although this kind of research posed no considerable risk to participants due to my questions and the characteristics of participants, I realized that no research study is void of risks, and thus, it is considerable to respect the research sites. Also, the participants time is respected to not inconvenience stakeholders. Once the major themes were developed in the analysis phase, the information is shared with participants to judge if I had ascribed the correct meanings to the data and if there are any discrepancies in interpreting the data. This member checking process was vital in determining the credibility of the research study (Creswell, 2013). To impact the targeted audience and to allow them to draw conclusions from the study, the final report includes rich descriptions of the participants and the contexts of the study (Stake, 2000) and direct quotes from the participants which provided a rich, vicarious experience to the target audience. Limitations This case study provids an in-depth description of one internship program. The study focused on one program could be perceived as a limitation. Although the findings may apply to other organizations, generalizations of the findings to other contexts such as an established program or another industry may have severe limitations. A comparative case would provide additional insights and boost the findings of the study. Summary The researcher of this study adopted a qualitative method to describe a school-industry partnership that offered internship training to scholars. In the following chapter, the results will be presented using thick, rich descriptions. The findings illuminate practices that enhance internship programs and provide an understanding of the opportunities and challenges faced by stakeholders.
Thursday, September 19, 2019
Summary of A Separate Peace by John Knowles As the novel opens, Gene Forrester returns to Devon, the New Hampshire boarding school he attended during World War II. Gene has not seen Devon for 15 years, and so he notices the ways in which the school has changed since he was a student there. Strangely, the school seems newer, but perhaps, he thinks, the buildings are just better taken care of now that the war is over. Gene walks through the campus on a bleak, rainy November afternoon, revisiting the buildings and fields he remembersÃ¢â¬âand especially two places he recalls as Ã¢â¬Å"fearful sites.Ã¢â¬ At the First Academic Building, he enters the foyer to look closely at the white marble steps. Then he trudges across the playing fields to the river in search of a particular tree and finally recognizes it by its long limb over the water and the scars on its trunk. The tree, he thinks, is smaller than he remembers. The chapter section ends with Gene heading back to shelter through the rain. The second section opens during the summer of 1942 when Gene is 16. He is attending a special Summer Session at Devon, designed to speed up education to prepare the boys for the military draft in their senior year. Gene stands at the same tree with his best friend and roommate, Phineas (nicknamed Finny), and three other boys, Elwin Lepellier (Leper), Chet Douglass, and Bobby Zane. The tree seems enormous to Gene, but Finny suddenly decides to climb it and jump into the river, just like the Devon 17 year olds, who are training for military service. Finny jumps and dares Gene to follow. Against his better judgment, Gene climbs the tree and also jumps, but the three others refuse. . The shared danger of jumping brings Finny and Gene closer. While the rest of the boys hurry ahead at the sound of the bell for dinner, the roommates playfully wrestle until they are late for the meal. They slip into the dormitory, where they read their English assignments and play their radio (against school rules), until it is time for bed. Ch 2 The morning after the boys first jump from the tree, Mr. PrudÃ¢â¬â¢homme, a substitute Master for the summer, scolds Gene and Finny for missing dinner. Finny tells Mr. PrudÃ¢â¬â¢homme that they were late because they were jumping out of the tree to prepare for military serviceÃ¢â¬âa far-fetched excuse he weaves into a long, funny explanation. FinnyÃ¢â¬â¢s friendly chatter c... ...e he prefers. Gene explains that he is planning to join the Navy in order to avoid being drafted into the infantry, while Brinker, too, has made a careful choice, deciding on the relative safety of the Coast Guard. This disgusts Mr. Hadley, who urges them to think about how their military service will sound when they talk about it in the future. The safest choice may not be the wisest choice in the long run, he explains. Afterward, Brinker complains of his fatherÃ¢â¬â¢s hearty enthusiasm for war service, especially since the older generation will not face any risk in the war that Brinker insists they caused. BrinkerÃ¢â¬â¢s thinking reminds Gene of FinnyÃ¢â¬â¢s theory about the fake-war conspiracy of Ã¢â¬Å"fat old men.Ã¢â¬ But for himself, Gene decides that the war arose from something Ã¢â¬Å"ignorantÃ¢â¬ within humanity itself. As Gene empties his locker to leave Devon for military service, he thinks of Finny and their friendship, which still remains a vital part of his life. Later, from his adult perspective, Gene believes that his war actually ended before he ever entered military service. He sees now that he killed his Ã¢â¬Å"enemyÃ¢â¬ at Devon, while Finny, always unique, never saw anyone or anything as his enemy.
Wednesday, September 18, 2019
Substantiality of Low Carbohydrate Diets Being able to eat as much butter, cheese and meat as you want but not be allowed even a single slice of whole grain bread just doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t make sense. But, it is backed up in scientific fact. There are four types of molecules that the body processes for energy Ã¢â¬â alcohol, sugar, boy fat, and protein, in that order. Alcohol from hard liquor, wine, and beer is processed first and very quickly. To successfully be on a low carbohydrate diet, it is best to avoid alcohol. Sugar is a class of molecules that includes, but is not limited to, table sugar and are derived from carbohydrates. As long as there is very little alcohol and next to no carbohydrates in your system, your body will preferentially process body fat for energy. It is important to note that body fat and the fat in food are two different entities. Body fat is stored energy. Fat from food is not processed for energy Ã¢â¬â the body uses it for other things. Body fat is made up of a type of molecule called a lipid. When lipids are broken down to make carbohydrates, an energy molecule and a type of molecule called a ketone is released. The name of this ketone is ?-hydroxybutyrate. Other instances of fat being broken down and releasing this ketone are during fasting, starvation, and during certain eating disorders such as anorexia. The presence of this ketone causes the body to think that it is starving even though it is getting plenty of food. Glycogen, the bodyÃ¢â¬â¢s natural fuel, is stored all bound up in water. Glycogen is made up of carbohydrates. When the body does not consume carbohydrates, it dips into its reserve supply as a survival mechanism. But, in accessing reserve glycogen, all the water that it is stored in is also released. And, as the reserves donÃ¢â¬â¢t get restocked, the excess water stays gone. Water is reasonably heavy. So, what appears to be fat loss is actually just water weight being lost. There are a limited number of food options on a low carbohydrate diet. The dullness and lack of variety tends to reduce appetite and intake.
Tuesday, September 17, 2019
Since the last ten years, the fastest growing sector in the food industry has been the organic food. Organic food are certified by labels that ensure that they are produced without pesticides and antibiotics and that they preserve the environment with the use of renewable resources (Organic Produce Export Committee, 2002, cited Lea and Worsley, 2005). In France, the AB label ensures that at least 95% of the production is organic and compels the producers to state clearly the origin and the method of production (CSA Agence Bio, 2006). In France in 2006, 43% of the population has consumed organic product at least once a month which corresponds to an increase of 6% since 2003. The growth rate of organic consumption is about 10 percent per year since 1999. (CSA Agence Bio,2006). Abroad, the same phenomena occurs, and organic, even if it represented no more than 3% of total food consumption in Europe (Soil Association 2000, cited in Aarset et al. 2004) appears to be real trend that will growth over time. This mainstream has been strengthening by the BSE scandal and the controversy about the genetically modified food effects. Regarding this postulate, researchers and marketers began to study the organic consumer in the late 90Ã¢â¬â¢s. It is very important for food providers to understand why the consumers purchase this new kind of food. In our study, we chose to focus on the determination of consumersÃ¢â¬â¢ profiles as well as their motives to act. Most of the studies we discuss emphasized on the determination of consumers profiles in term of socio-demographic factors related to their attitudes or motivation. But we can wonder if those factors are sufficient in order to give a global understanding of the organics buyers. The research problem is here to define which factors influence the organic food consumption, and to understand their inter-relationship in a global context of food consumption. In a first part, we will try to understand the impact on culture on consumption and then the need to look at each country particularly. Then we will discuss the main factors that influence the consumers that is to say: attitudes, values and motivations (combined with socio-demographic factors). Eventually, we will present and analyse the research we decided to base our study on in order to develop the constructs and the propositions of the conceptual framework. 1Market development and cultural factors. 1. 1Culture influences the food choice. The most primary factor that gives a direction to an individual is certainly is culture or region of origin. Solomon (1991, chap 15) defines it as Ã¢â¬Å"a societyÃ¢â¬â¢s personalityÃ¢â¬ . ItÃ¢â¬â¢s the sharing among a population of traditions, norms, beliefs and attitudes in one country or in one specific region. Culture is the first socio-demographic factor that would affect the decision to purchase. Socio-demographic factors (Mac Carthy and Perreault, 1990, p79-81) are the dimensions that affect the consumer act of purchase in a specific consumption context. The typical ways to segment and define consumers are presented in the exhibit 1: the socio-demographic factors. Regarding this postulate, we can assume that the behaviour will be different from a country to another. For instance, Aarset et. Al (2004) highlighted that from a country to another, organic products are not seen to be the same even if they are. Thus, they compared the meaning of Ã¢â¬Å"organicÃ¢â¬ and the perception of labelling system in France, Germany, Norway and UK. The study highlights the fact that these notions are unclear and clouded for the consumer and that different countries perceived them in different ways. The two tables below resume the cross-national comparison: Table 1: The definition of Ã¢â¬Å"organicÃ¢â¬ in the five countries (Aarset et. al, 2004): France GermanyNorwaySpainUK ?Natural ?Limited Human intervention? High welfare ?Natural ?Environmentally kind? Characterised by confusion and ambivalence ? Natural? Ecological and natural ?Non-use of pesticides ?Not environmentally damaging? freedom from artificial inputs ? limiting environment damage Table 2: The perception of the labelling system: (Aarset et. al, 2004) France GermanyNorwaySpainUK ?Easily duped ?Legislative system required at the EU level ?Aware of Ã¢â¬Å"BioÃ¢â¬ label ?Trust the AB system? Spectical consumers ?Unfamiliar with labels ?Limited knowledge of regulations? Sceptical labelling as gimmick ? Limited knowledge of regulations? Labels should reflect quality ? Ignorant about current labels? Limited knowledge of regulations ?Trust government certifications? Should be free from government inputs ? Sceptical ?Unfamiliar ?Limited knowledge of regulations More specially, Beharrel and Mac Fie (1991, cited in Squires et. al, 2001) showed that the motivations and the attitudes towards organic food were country specific. People are influenced by their society and by their way of life inside. Furthermore, longitudinal studies (Douglas and Wildavsky, 1982 and Davies et al. 1995, cited in Squires et. al, 2001) show that behaviour evolves over time. In this way in the first study Irish consumers ranked environmental concerns at the top and four years later, the same concern was equally cited by consumers with health concern (Squires et al. 2001). 1. 2The level of development of the country market influences organic food choice 1. 2. 1A cross- national study of Danish and New-Zealand organic consumers. A cross-national study made by Squires et. al (2001) compares the behaviour of Danish and New-Zealand organic consumer regarding the level of organic food market development. Denmark is considered to be a mature market where organic food products are well implemented and New-Zealand is seen as a novice one. Lampkin (1992, cited in Squires et al. 2001) established that in a mature market, environment is the most important motive to consume organic products. The range, the prices and the availability will also have an impact on sales. The study about Danes and New Zealanders confirms these findings. Thus, New-Zealanders who are health focused, tend to be more heavy consumers of organic food, while for Danes the same motivation appear to be not significant. Environmentally friendly and green consumers are more likely to be heavy consumers of organic food products in Denmark. Finally, the research paper highlights that the macro-environment has an impact. For instance, Danish health and care system is well developed so we can assume that they donÃ¢â¬â¢t seek at first to protect their bodies but that they are more focus on environmental concern as Denmark is one of the most Ã¢â¬Å"green countryÃ¢â¬ . Squires et al. (2001) advocates that study should take into account the macro-environment of countries studies as well as the market development concerning the organic food market. The stage of development of the industry in the life-cycle is also a predictor of moderators of organic consumption. These factors should be considered when hypotheses and propositions are made about one specific country and its organic food consumption trends. 1. 2. 2The moderators of consumption depend on the market development Tarkiainen and Sundqvist (2005) investigated the two major barriers of organic food consumption: the price and the availability of products (Tregear et al, 1994; Magnusson et al. 2001, cited in Tarkiainen and Sundqvist, 2005). The price is a barrier when the product has no special added value for the buyer (Roddy et al. 1996, cited in Fotopoulos and Krystallis, 2002). Generally, the willingness to pay differs from the range of products, for instance 52% of German accept to pay more for fresh products and 34% for animal products like meat ( Meier-Ploeger and Woodward, 1999, cited in Fotopoulos and Krystallis, 2002). A priori, these moderators would have an impact everywhere and would have an influence in the country studied, Finland (Tarkiainen and Sundqvist, 2005). Actually, the hypotheses that the price and availability of products were both rejected by the study. Indeed, the range of products analysed (breads) were not price premium compared to conventional bread. Furthermore, it appears that there is no availability issue and no short supply in Finland as the market is well implemented in this country. If we look at the same factors in Spain, (Sanjuan et al. 2003), it showed that in Spain, the price has a strong impact on the consumption of organic food. Thus, the willingness to pay was below the actual difference between organic and conventional products. It also stated that the willingness to pay was different among different range of products, for example, Spanish are more ready to buy at a price premium if they are considering fresh products. In the same way, a Greek survey (Fotopoulos and Krystallis, 2002) about purchasing motives and organic food illustrated that the availability of products was the main barriers as the choice and the number of retailers are very limited. As Conclusion, we can state that culture as well as market development are important factors when considering the consumption of organic food. As far as the situation is different country by country, it is interesting to study behaviours in specific situation. Culture and market development are not the only determinants that will influence the behaviour regarding organic products. Socio-demographic factors will also influence the decision making process of organic consumer. These factors can be combined with values, attitudes and/or motivations in order to design different consumer profiles. We the next parts, we will discuss the impact of these determinants in the organic food consumption. 2The attitudes that influence consumer 2. 1Attitudes and the Theory of Planned Behaviour 2. 1. 1Attitudes Attitudes are different from values because they concern objects like a behaviour, a person, an idea or a thing. Attitudes are the expression of the thinking in a precise situation. Attitudes are judged through our values. (Antonides and Raajj, 1998, p. 138). The attitude is central to the model of Ã¢â¬Å"values-attitudes-behaviourÃ¢â¬ where Ã¢â¬Å"the influence should theoreotically flow from abstract values to mid-range attitudes to specific behaviourÃ¢â¬ (Homer and Kahle, 1988; cited in Soyoen and Eastlick, 1998). As we will see next, attitudes are central in the context of ethical choices. 2. 1. 2The Theory of Planned Behaviour and consumers ethics 2. 1. 2. 1The presentation of the Theory of Planned Behaviour. The theory of reasoned action (TRA), developed Ajzen and Fishbein in 1980, is a value-attitude-behaviorÃ¢â¬â¢s framework where the objective is to understand which factors would influence the consumer in an ethical context. The model is based on the fact that behaviour is a direct function of Intention where intention is built in function of attitude and subjective norm. Intention to purchase are considering to be good determinant of the behaviour (Honkanen et al. 2006). Furthermore it concerns a rational decision making process where an individual has control. The attitude is made by the sum of individualsÃ¢â¬â¢ beliefs and the evaluation of those beliefs. In the same way, the subjective norm is the sum of two elements: -Ã¢â¬Å"individuals beliefs that important to other think they should or not should perform the behaviour questionÃ¢â¬ -Ã¢â¬Å"The motivation to comply with otherÃ¢â¬ . In 1985, Adjzen added a new variable, the perceived behavioural control. This theory is widespread supported by researchers (Ajzen, 1991), but it is stated that additional predictors could be included in the model if there are significant to forecast consumer behaviour. Figure 2 : The theory of Planned Behavior (Ajzen, 1991) 2. 1. 2. 2The relationship between TPB and food choice behaviour. In 1994, Thompson et. al (1998)analyzed the food behaviour with the TPB model in the context of growing consumption of olive oil in United Kingdom. The constructs of perceived behaviour control was removed because Spark et al. (1995, cited in Thompson et. al, 1994) stated that the olive oil usage was not Ã¢â¬Å"significantly impededÃ¢â¬ . In this case of olive oil, the model was significant and confirmed that TPB is well adapted to food consumption (Saegert and Young,1983 ; Towler and Shepherd, 1992 : cited in Thompson et. al, 1994). Additionally, the study showed that attitudes is a powerful predictor and explain the major part of the behaviour. It emphasizes that olive consumption is mainly due to the willingness to improve the taste of salad. Furthermore, the subjective norms play a minor role in the model, and reveals to be not significant. This fact is due the low involvement of consumers in the act of eating or drinking. The consumption of organic food is more involved act as it reflects the life-style and the values of an individual. In the next study, we will see that subjective norm plays a key role when itÃ¢â¬â¢s integrated in the model as antecedents of attitudes. 2. 2The TPB in the context of organic food consumption 2. 2. 1The importance of subjective norms as antecedents of values. The research conducted by Tarkiainen and Sundqvist (2005) looks at the subjective norms and attitudes that influence the organic food consumption in Finland. As we emphasized previously, the perceived control behaviour as Ã¢â¬Å"priceÃ¢â¬ and availability were found not significant. The most important finding of this study is the integration in the model of subjective norms as an antecedent of attitudes. As we said before, the subjective norms were often viewed as non significant because of the low-involvement in the food and drink consumption. However, Chang (1998), Sherphed and OÃ¢â¬â¢Keefe (1984), Shimp and Kavas (1984) and Vallerland et al. (1992) (cited in Tarkiainen and Sundqvist 2005) demonstrated that subjective norms were significant when the decision is related to an ethical context and when there are placed as antecedents of attitudes. The result of the study illustrated the importance of the behaviour in relation with others thinking. Furthermore, the specific attitude took into account in the study that is to say the health consciousness, is not sufficient in order to explain attitudes. The authors advise that further studies should look at several motives/beliefs to explain attitudes as environment concern. The next study we will discuss considers more variables in the model of TPB. 2. 2. 2The multivariate modelling approach of ethical consumer choice. Using the theory of planned behaviour, Shaw and Shiu (2003) explored the important factors that occur in the context of organic food shopping. They proposed a study based on self-interest factors. In this way, they added two constructs in the primary theory: the self-identity and ethical obligation. Ethical obligation refers to ethical beliefs that would represent a personÃ¢â¬â¢s beliefs of what is good or bad. Self-identity can be defined as Ã¢â¬Å"the pertinent part of an individualÃ¢â¬â¢s self that relates to a particular behaviourÃ¢â¬ (Shaw and Shiu, 2002). As Shaw and Shiu stated in 2000, these construct have an impact on the consumer behaviour in an ethical context and have been neglected before. Figure 3: Modified theory of Planned behaviour (Shaw and Shiu, 2003) This model was validated through a structural equation modelling in order to predict the behaviour of organic consumer. The study explains 52% percent of the actions of them. The theory of planned behaviour gives the opportunity to have more insight that a classical socio-demographic analysis which usually defines the consumer profile (Shaw and Shiu, 2003). However some factors remain unexplained (48%) and authors proposed to look at values that would influence the behaviour in order to understand which ones are underlying the self-identity and ethical obligation. In another hand, the study emphasized that information and emotions are very important in the ethical decision making (Shaw and Clark, 1999, cited in Shaw and Shiu, 2003). In the next step, we will focus on the values that influence the consumer decision process in the context of organic food shopping. 3The relationship between Values and organic consumption 3. 1Presentation and meaning of values The concept of values is defined as what is behind attitudes and behaviour of an individual in the context of organisation, institutions and society (M. Rockeach, 1973). Personal values are known to explain consumersÃ¢â¬â¢ behaviour in very broad situations (Rockeach, 1973). Personal values are defined by Schwartz and Bilsky (1987, cited in Steenhaut, 2006) as Ã¢â¬Å"concept or beliefs about desirable end states or behaviours that transcend specific situations, guide selection or evaluation of behaviour and events, and are ordered by relative importanceÃ¢â¬ . Milton Rockeach (1973) developed a wide range of values which are divided into two categories: the instrumental and the terminal one. The 36 kinds of different values are presented in the exhibit 2: Instrumental and terminal values defined by M. Rockeach (1973, chap 3). Based on the work of M. Rockeach, Schwartz (1992, cited in Schwartz 2001) developed ten groups of values within a circular structure where the set of values is linked to each other. These ten groups of values are (Schwartz, 2001): -Self-direction -Stimulation -Achievement -Hedonism -Security -Benevolence -Universalism. -Conformity -Power -Tradition For the detailed meaning of each value, please refer to the exhibit 3: Definitions of type of values and items that represent and measure them (Schwartz, 2001). According to Schwartz (2001), values can be antagonist or congruent to each other. The circular pattern above shows the relationship between the ten groups. If two values are near, they tend to be congruent and if they are at the opposite, they are in conflict. Two axes resume the scheme: Ã¢â¬Å"Self-enhancement versus self transcendence opposes power and achievement to universalism and benevolence values. Openness to change to versus conservatism opposes the self-direction and stimulation values to security and conformity. Ã¢â¬ (Schwartz, 2001) Figure 4: The relationship among 10 motivational types of values. 3. 2Exploring the organic food consumption towards the Schwartz Value Survey In the aftermath of the result of the Theory of Planned Behaviour applied to organic food consumers, authors (Shaw et al. , 2005) investigated the pertinence of personal values in the same context. They used the Schwartz Value Survey (SVS) explained above. The result of the study can be summarizes in the following table: Table 3: Values that are important in an ethical point of view (from Shaw et al. 2005) Groups of ValuesSpecific items related to an ethical issues AchievementInfluential: people are drive by ethical obligation and want to influence others. SecurityHealthy: people want to eat and drink something that would protect or at least not harm themselves BenevolenceHelpful: want to have information for staff Honest: relationship based on trust UniversalismEquality and social justice: protection and welfare of all people Protecting the environment: preserving the nature. In addition to the SVS, authors defined three values that were important for choosing organic food: the capitalism as a negative one, consumer power and the animal welfare as positive one. In conclusion, values are not all meaningful and were inappropriate to study the ethical consumer. The most important finding is that the universalism values are the most relevant one in this specific context. A second study investigates the personal values combined with the Hunt-Vitell scheme as we will see now. 3. 3Relationship between personal values, ethical ideology and ethical beliefs. The Hunt-Vitell theory examines the judgment and the evaluation of an ethical problem of an individual. In this review of consumer ethics, Vitell (2003) emphasized that two major factors influence the evaluation of consumers: the idealism and the relativism. After a presentation about the model that will be used, we will discuss the purpose of the research paper. 3. 3. 1Hunt-Vitell theory of ethics Hunt and Vitell (1986) developed a model thatÃ¢â¬â¢s studying the decision making process of an individual when (s)he is facing an ethical issue. When a person is in front an issue, (s)he has alternatives that he can chose. These Ã¢â¬Å"perceived alternativesÃ¢â¬ are evaluated thanks to two ways of analysis: the deontological and the teleological point of view. The deontological evaluation concentrates on the evaluation of the behaviour itself and compares the evaluation of alternatives in term of wrongness or rightness. This is directly related to personal norms and beliefs that a person develops. The teleological evaluation focuses on the consequences of the alternatives, and wants to state if itÃ¢â¬â¢s good or bad to take one decision. It contains four major constructs: -Ã¢â¬Å"the perceived consequences of each alternatives for various stakeholders, -The probability that each consequence will occur to each stakeholder, -The desirability or lack of desirability of each consequence, -The importance of each stakeholder groupÃ¢â¬ (Hunt and Vitell, 1986, p. 9). These predictors sum up together, build the ethical judgment of an individual which is turned into intention to behave and into behaviour. Finally, we also have a predictor called Ã¢â¬Å"Situational ConstraintsÃ¢â¬ which is related to the macro-environment that could impact the behaviour (eg.opportunity). The concept established that four areas will impacted the perceived ethical issue, alternatives and consequences: -The cultural environment -The personal characteristics -The industry environment -The organizational environment. As we can see Hunt and Vitell theory is a global concept that occurs in businesses related situation, however if we remove the constructs related to a professional situation, this model is valid to study the consumer behaviour (Scott J. Vitell, 2003). Figure 1: the Hunt and Vitell theory without professional situational predictors (Hunt and Vitell, 1986). 3. 3. 2Findings about the relationship between personal values, ethical beliefs and ethical ideology The purpose of the research done by Steenhaut and Kenhove (2006) was to examine the influence and the impact of individual personal values priorities in the ethical judgment. To do so, they used the Hunt-Vitell theory combined with the Schwartz Value Survey (Schwartz, 1994, cited in Steenhaut and Kenhove, 2006). To measure the ethical beliefs, they use the Consumer Ethics Scale developed and validated by Vitell and Muncy (1992, cited in Vitell 2003). This scale looked at the reactions of consumers in front of ethical questionable actions (e. g. the reaction facing a passive benefit at the expense of others). The study found that idealism was determinant: more a consumer is attached to tradition, security and conformity; the more likely he is to act ethically. Furthermore, more a consumer is attached to universalism and benevolence (self-transcendent), the more is likely to act ethically. ? Two major types of values are important in an ethical context. The universalism and benevolence (self-transcendent) are the most important values in the context of organic food shopping. These findings canÃ¢â¬â¢t explain a lot of the behaviour (no more than 10% in Shaw et al. 2006), so we propose that more specific values related to food choices and ethical behaviour have to be studied. ?These findings give the opportunity to marketer to stress their communication actions on values that care for organic consumers. However, personal values are only an indirect linked to the consumer behaviour, and it is noticed in the both studies (Shaw et al. 2006 and Steenhaut and Kenhove, 2006) illustrated that personal values are not enough to predict ethical decision making process especially in the context of organic shopping. Even if self-transcendent values need to be studied in the case of organic food consumption, itÃ¢â¬â¢s just a set of explanation. These values are to general and are shared by people in a culture (Honkanen et al. 2006) so it appears that different ways to investigate the relationship between values and organic food consumption should be discussed. In the next part, we will investigate countrywide surveys that have explored the organic consumers. They take into account more variables like socio-demographic factors, beliefs and motives regarding organic consumption. 4Analyzing the organic consumers through their motivation and their socio-demographic factors 4. 1What are the main motivations towards organic consumption? 4. 1. 1The health motives Most of the researches done on organic consumersÃ¢â¬â¢ state that the most important factor that influences the decision to purchase is the health (Fagerli and Wandel 1999, Rozin et al. 1999, cited in Magnusson et al. 2003). Even if there are no clear evidence that organic food consumption is healthier than the conventional one, this factor is generally ranked at the top. 4. 1. 2The environmentally friendly consumers/ Concern for the environment is the other one most important motive to purchase organic products. In this case, people want to act in order to protect the environment, the nature and more generally the Ã¢â¬Å"eco-systemÃ¢â¬ . These consumers also care about the pollution, the usage of non renewable resources and species preservations. (McEachern and McClean,2002). The animal welfare is also a motivation for environmentally friendly consumers. 4. 1. 3The food safety One of the reasons for seeking food safety (Fotopoulos and Krystallis, 2002) is related to recent food scandal like the BSE crisis in UK and all over Europe. People are looking for better quality and safety in order to protect themselves and that include organic products. Furthermore, the genetically modified food appears to be risky for a range of consumers , they would have positive thinking about organics compared to negative thoughts about GM (Rimal et al. 2005). 4. 1. 4The taste of the product Consumers often see organic products as more tasty compared to the conventional one because they are made in smaller quantities and wider varieties (Davis et al. 1995, cited in Fotopoulos and Krystallis, 2002). TasteÃ¢â¬â¢s rating is high in country like UK and Germany (Meier-Ploeger and Woodward, 1999 cited in Fotopoulos and Krystallis, 2002). It seems that it is one of the top five factors of motivation for buying. Nevertheless it appears that there is no scientific evidence of the higher taste of organics and it seems that the beliefs of the consumers are divergent from the reality (Hutchins and Greenhalg, 1997, cited in Fotopoulos and Krystallis, 2002) 4. 1. 5The confidence on food industry The study of Squires et al. (2001) showed that less an individual is confident in the conventional food industry, the more likely he is to purchase organic food. That seems logical as if a consumer is scared about conventional food, we will seek for other alternatives including organics. As we stated that there are differences between consumer profiles and habits according to the country of origin and it would be interesting to emphasize these divergences. In the next part, consumers are studied according to their purchase behaviour (intensity) thanks to the combination of motivations with socio-demographics factors. In this way, we will discuss the behaviour on several countries and try to analyse if these factors are suuficient to well understand organic consumers. 4. 2The consumersÃ¢â¬â¢ profiles by countries 4. 2. 1. 1? in France According to the barometer made by CSA Agence Bio in 2006, 4 out 10 people consume organic products at least once a month and that 7% consume it every week. The motives of French consumers have evolved over time and are: -The protection of the environment -The health concern -The food safety -The taste and the quality. Furthermore, the availability of the products is seen as a moderator for 19% of the population. The willingness to pay more is well accepted as consumers think that is normal to pay more for higher quality standard products like organics. The products that are the more consumed are fresh, diary, and meat items. In this study, we donÃ¢â¬â¢t have any information about the socio-demographic profiles about consumers as well as their values. 4. 2. 1. 2? in Australia The research of Lea and Worsley (2005) scrutinize the relationship between personal values, beliefs and socio-demographics factors in order to understand the organic consumers in Australia. They use a 12 items scale about beliefs and organic food, a 14 items scale about the self-transcendence personal values adapted from Schwartz Value Survey and a 13 items scale (age, sex, income and education) to perform their questionnaire. The results are summarized in the following table: ValuesBeliefs and MotivesModeratorsDemo. Profile The values are positively related to organic purchases. They explain only 8% of the variance in the study-Health -Taste -environmentThe expense and the availability are the major moderators as expected. 50% mistrust the organic labelling systemMore women compare to men a likely to purchase. The other factors were not significant. The profile which is more likely to purchase is a female who strongly care about nature and equality. The study suggest that not only socio-demographic and personal values factors influence the decision to purchase and that future research should look the perceived consequences of the act of buying and other concrete attribute like taste or colour. 4. 2. 1. 3? in New-Zealand The purpose of the study developed by Squires et al. (2001) was to investigate the cross-influences of the health, environmentally concerns, and the confidence in conventional food in the consumption in New-Zealand and in Denmark. The findings about the New-Zealanders are shown in the following table: Beliefs and MotivesGeneral ProfileDemo. Profile -Health -Environment -Less trust in conventional in food ind. ? + towards organics. Personal eco-identity profile: worried person about the mankind and about environmental disaster would buy more. More female, older people and more rural and suburbs consumers consume organic products. 4. 2. 1. 4? in Denmark According to the same study (Squires et al. 2001), DanesÃ¢â¬â¢ profile of organic consumers are: Beliefs and MotivesGeneral ProfileDemo. Profile -Environment -Health -Mistrust in conventional in food ind. ? + towards organics. Green Self-perception profile: care about the environment and its protection at first. More female, older people and live in cities. The authors advise for further research to look at more motivation factors in order to give more insights about the organic consumers. 4. 2. 1. 5? in Sweden The research made in Sweden by Magnusson et al. (2003) deals only with the two main factors that influence the organic decision to purchase, the human health and the environment and their consequences on the consumer. They design a study based on four organic types of product with two different scales: -Questions about the frequency, attitudes, availability and beliefs about organic products. -Questions about the 17 possible consequences of buying organic food in general. They find out that the consequences of the act of buying are strongly related to environment and health well-being. The Swedish are motivated by health concern in the intention and frequency to purchase and young female tend to be the most likely to consume organic product. They also state that the environmental concern is an altruistic motive and that the health concern is more an egoistic motive (I want the well-being for my relatives and me at first). Swedish who have a strong green behaviour regarding recycling for instance, have more self-centred motives for buying organic food. It can be explain by the fact that recycling or green behaviour require less involvement are easier to do everyday.? This study emphasizes the need to analyse the organic consumer in a wider way with the inclusion of his/her behaviour regarding other Ã¢â¬Å"greenÃ¢â¬ or Ã¢â¬Å"ethicÃ¢â¬ activities. With the inclusion of these variables, research would have the capacity to state if other green behaviours are related or have an impact on the consumption of organics. 4. 2. 1. 6? in Greece The Greek market is a novice one regarding the consumption of organic products, and Fotopoulos and Krystallis (2002) want give information about consumers in the country and investigate ways to cluster different consumers according to their behavio.