Wednesday, July 31, 2019

An Effective Counsellor Essay

Counsellor’s should continually assess their own feelings and needs to maintain an appropriate relationship with the client. There are issues that a counsellor should be aware of when doing a self-assessment; The counsellor should be aware of when they feel uncomfortable with a client or a topic being discussed. The counsellor must choose to either be honest with the discomfort of a situation or topic, or they may refer the client to another counsellor. The counsellor should be aware of their own avoidance strategies. The counsellor must be able to recognize when they avoid certain topics, or allow distractions and then find an effective way to facilitate help appropriately. The counsellor should be able to recognize when they are trying to control a situation. It is important that the counsellor engage in responsive listening so that they’re not controlling the communication process. The counsellor must remind themselves continuously that any issue being discussed has many perspectives and that theirs may be different, from that of the clients. It is important not to express whether the clients view is right or wrong. The counsellor must avoid being omnipotent. It is not the counsellors job to make the client better. It is the counsellor’s job to help facilitate the client in addressing and resolving the issues. It is also important that the counsellor identifies and responds to positive feelings, and that they don’t just focus on negative ones. This provides balance for the client and allows them to amplify positive strengths in their lives. Lastly, the counsellor must keep in mind to never ask a question, or discuss a 1 topic that you would not be able to discuss in a similar situation. These issues should always be addressed when a Counsellor is engaging in a self-assessment. By completing a self-assessment I was able to address my values, skills, attributes and my interests. I identified that while I am not a judgemental person, I do hold values that if not addressed prior to a situation could cause myself to become close-minded and that would ultimately put a barrier up in my ability to help the client. I also was able to identify how I can use my skills and attributes to counsel my clients in a positive manner. I have identified that I try to find a positive in all situations but I don’t ever be-little the seriousness of the topic at hand. With a self-assessment I am able to recognize when and how to communicate appropriately with a client. The individuals I support will be able to discuss issues with me and feel comfortable knowing that I don’t judge or assume things about them. Both my verbal and non-verbal skills will make this evident to the client. As a registered Developmental Service Worker I could be taking on a role as a counsellor where self-assessment is crucial as it is important to be able to identify when or if I am not dealing with a situation or topic appropriately. I will use the skill of self-assessment in any other role whether that be taking on a position as a Personal Support Worker or working in a group home. It is important that I am able to identify my strengths and weaknesses when it comes to helping a client and that I am able to do so in a way that is prudent. It is also important to continually perform a self-assessment as situations change or evolve. A counsellor who understands how they communicate and who has self-awareness is likely to be more effective in helping the client, then those who are not aware of these issues. Counsellors who are able to identify aspects such as if a topic being discussed makes them feel uncomfortable, if the topic goes against their own values or beliefs, if it is causing different emotions in themselves and why that may be, if they are projecting these feelings and whether or not they are really listening to the 2 client. Continual self-awareness is crucial to the development of the counsellor and their ability to help the client.

Tuesday, July 30, 2019

Monitoring system

RFID technology which is a matured technology that has been widely deployed by various organizations as part of their automation systems. In this study, an RFID based system has been built in order to produce a time-attendance management system. This system consists of two main parts which include: the hardware and the software. The hardware consists of the motor unit and the RFID reader. The RFID reader, which is a low-frequency reader (125 kHz), is connected to the host computer via a serial to USB converter cable. The Time-Attendance System GUI was developed using visual basic.Net. The Time-Attendance Management System provides the functionalities of the overall system such as displaying live ID tags transactions, registering ID, deleting ID, recording attendance and other minor functions. This interface was installed in the host computer. Keywords: Radio-frequency identification, RFID technology, radio waves identification (RFID) is a matured technology that incorporates the use of electromagnetic or electrostatic coupling in the radio frequency portion of the electromagnetic spectrum to uniquely identify an object, animal, or person.RFID hips contain a radio transmitter that emits a coded identification number when queried by a reader device. Some RFID tags can be read from several meters away and beyond the line of sight of the reader. The application of bulk reading enables an almost-parallel reading of tags. This small type is incorporated in consumer products, and even implanted in pets, for identification. The tag's information is stored electronically.The RFID tag includes a small RF transmitter which transmits an encoded radio signal to interrogate the tag, and receiver which receives the message and responds with its identification information. Some RFID tags do not use a battery. Instead, the tag uses the radio energy transmitted by the reader as its energy source. The RFID system design includes a method of discriminating several tags that might be within the range of the RFID reader. RFID can be used in many applications. A tag can be affixed to any object and used to track and manage inventory, assets, people, etc.For example, it can be affixed to cars, computer equipment, books, mobile phones, etc. The Healthcare industry has used RFID to reduce counting, looking for things and auditing items. Many financial institutions use RFID to track key assets nd automate compliance. Also with recent advances in social media RFID is being used to tie the physical world Copyright 2012 SAVAP International www. savap. org. pk www. ]ournals. savap. org. pk 168 with the virtual world. RFID in Social Media first came to light in 2010 with Facebook's annual conference.RFID is a superior and more efficient way of identifying objects than manual system or use of bar code systems that have been in use since the 1970s. Furthermore, passive RFID tags (those without a battery) can be read if passed within close enough proximity to an RFID reade r. It is not necessary to â€Å"show† the tag to the reader device, s with a bar code. In other words it does not require line of sight to â€Å"see† an RFID tag, the tag can be read inside a case, carton, box or other container, and unlike barcodes RFID tags can be read hundreds at a time.Bar codes can only be read one at a time. Radio frequency identification (RFID) is a matured technology that incorporates the use of electromagnetic or electrostatic coupling in the radio frequency portion of the electromagnetic spectrum to uniquely identify an object, technologies. RFID tags are not an â€Å"improved bar code† as the proponents of the technology would like you to believe. An RFID system consists of three components which include: an antenna, a transceiver and a transponder (the tag). The antenna and the transceiver are often incorporated into one reader.The antenna uses radio frequency waves to transmit a signal that activates the transponder. When activated, the tag transmits data back to the antenna. The RFID can read the tag using Radio Frequency, meaning that the RFID reader can be read from a distance, right through your clothes, wallet, bags etc. An RFID tag consists of unique ID for each tag. The RFID technology has been in existence since the early 1920s. This technology has been used in libraries, museums, race timing, toll collection and contactless payment, tracking of persons and animals etc.The RFID attendance system is an automatic embedded system used in taking attendance of registered persons in a particular organization. The RFID attendance system offers an organization, the efficiency and convenience associated with RFID technology at a low cost. This method is fast as well as simple. Each employee uses an RFID card and the reader records the data when the employee enters or exits. RFID devices and software must be supported by a sophisticated software rchitecture that enables the collection and distribution of locatio n based information in near real time.A complete picture of the RFID attendance system combines the RFID Tags and readers with access to global standardized database, ensuring real time access to up-to-date information on the card. The card contains a unique identification number called an electronic product code (EPC). Nowadays, there are lots of companies around the world and some of them consist of workers up to 10 thousand or more. To handle a large number of workers may be a problem especially to get the attendance of the workers.The manual process means that henever a worker comes to work, he goes to sign at the time officer's table. This manual process has some flaws because in a case where a worker bribes the time officer or is familiar with him, the time officer may tamper with the attendance records. This would be a big problem in the company and might affect the productivity and management of the company. The suitable solution for this problem is by designing a system tha t will record attendance automatically. In this project, RFID system is used to record the numbers of employees' attendance automatically.The ID cards of the employees is embedded with RFID tag which is read by a reader. This RFID system is interfaced to a database through a computer. This method is more effective to prevent problem encountered when getting attendance manually. Below is the block diagram of an RFID attendance system. Related Works The use of Radio-frequency identification (RFID) technology in automated electronic environment and for tracking objects has been widely researched upon by researchers and deployed by various organizations as part of their automation systems.References [21] and [7] provide examples of a real RFID contact less data link deployments that utilize RFID technology for object tracking and automated data ollection solution. RFID is a technology that uses radio waves to transfer data from 169 an electronic tag, called RFID tag or label, attached t o an object, through a reader for the purpose of identifying and tracking the object In 1945, Leon Theremin invented an espionage tool (for spy activities) for the Soviet Union which retransmitted incident radio waves with audio frequency information.Sound waves vibrated a diaphragm which slightly altered the shape of the resonator, which modulated the reflected radio frequency even though this device was covert listening device, not an identification device or tag, it is considered to be a redecessor of radio frequency identification (RFID) technology because it was likewise passive, being energized and activated by waves from an outside source. Similar technologies such as the IFF (identification friend and foe) transponder developed in the United Kingdom, was routinely used by the allies in the World War 2 to identify aircrafts as friend or foe.Transponders are still used by most powered aircrafts to this day. Mario . W. Cardullo was the first to have received the United States p atent for an active RFID tag with re-writable memory on January 23, 1973 [4]. In that same year, Charles Walton, a California entrepreneur, received a patent for a passive transponder used to unlock a door without a key. A card with an embedded transponder communicates a reader near a door, when the reader detects a valid identification number stored within the tag, the reader unlocks the door.Walton licensed the technology to Schalge lock of San Francisco, a lock maker and other companies [1]. Time and attendance systems are a major part of todays human resource systems, take organization towards better human resource practice, systems and excellence. The implementation of time and attendance system has a lot f advantages for the manager. The kind of system that is implemented depends upon what the organization is trying to achieve by implementing the system. There are different types of automatic attendance systems; each type of system is suited to different needs and requirements [9].Some of the most common types include; biometric attendance system, magnetic stripe attendance system, barcode attendance system, and RFID attendance system. Barcode Attendance System The barcode system is a common type of time and attendance system through which the efficiency of measuring and tracking employees' time could be increased to a reat degree. With the automation through barcode technology, the errors previously provides high levels of accuracy and reliability in tracking of employee attendance.In addition, the costs associated with the installation of the system are not too much relative to the cost of payroll or attendance errors. The implementation of the barcode system is easy. Every employee is issued a badge/card in which there is a barcode. In order to check into or out of the company, the badge/card is swapped on the time clock, and the data is captured by the clock. This data from the clock can be downloaded by the manager or the administrator nd then used for updating and maintaining time and attendance records.The Universal Product Code (UPC) is a unique 12-digit number assigned to retail merchandise that identifies a product and the vendor. The Universal Product Code (UPC) on a product typically appears adjacent to its barcode, the machine-readable representation of the Universal Product Code (UPC). The UPC for a particular product is always the same. The first six digits is the vendor unique identification number. All the products that the vendor sells will have the same first six digits in their UPCs. The next five digits identify the product. The last digit is called the check digit.This is used to verify that the UPC for that specific product is correct. Each time that UPC is read, typically by a scanner reading the barcode, a calculation is done. And, if the check digit is different compared from the one that is calculated, then the computer knows that there is something wrong with the UPC. Figure 1 is a pictorial diagram of a barcode with its universal product code (UPC) [11]. Copyright 2012 SAVAP International 170 ISSN-L: 2223-9553 ISSN: 2223-9944 9553, Fig. l picture ofa barcode Biometric Attendance System This is the study of measurable biological characteristics.In computer security, biometrics refers to authentication techniques that rely on measurable physical characteristics that can be automatically checked. There are several types of biometric identification schemes which include:-face fingerprints, ecked. include: face retina, hand geometry, vein, voice etc. The computer uses any of these biometric identification schemes to determine who you are, and based your identity authorize [12]. Under this system, there is time and attendance software that is paired with a time clock for employees which uses biometric technology for authentication purposes.When these systems are in use, the employees can use their finger prints for clocking in and clocking out. This method has the great benefit that the entire process is easy as well as quick. Other advantages include elimination of the cost previously incurred in getting the employees cards. In the other systems that uses card other (magnetic stripe and barcode systems), there is an ongoing expense associated with the damage, misplacement and stealing of cards and the continuous need for their restoration and maintenance.Magnetic Stripe Attendance System In the magnetic stripe attendance system, data is encoded in the magnetic stripe of he employee card. When the card, is swiped through the employee time clock, the information in the card's magnetic stripe is recorded by the time clock. This system also reads one card at a time and also requires contact reads with the reader. Figure 2 is a pictorial diagram of a card embedded with magnetic strip. Fig. picture of a magnetic stripe card Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) A radio-frequency identification system comprises hardware shown in figure 3a & 3b, known as frequency interr ogators or readers and tags, also known as labels, as well as RFID software or RFID tags middleware. RFID tags are of two major types, which include Active Tag and Passive Tag. and Fig. sa RFID tag Fig. 3b RFID card and reader 171 RFID tags can be either passive, active or battery assisted passive. Passive RFID does not use a battery, while an active has an on-board battery that always broadcasts or activated when in the presence of a RFID reader.Most RFID tags contain at least two parts: one is an integrated circuit for storing and processing information, modulating and demodulating a radio-frequency (RF) signal, and other specialized functions; the other is an antenna for receiving and transmitting the signal. Depending on mobility, RFID readers are classified into two different types: fixed RFID and mobile RFID. If the reader reads tags in a stationary position, it is called fixed RFID. These fixed readers are set up specific interrogation zones and create a â€Å"bubble† of RF energy that can be tightly controlled if the physics is well engineered.This allows a very definitive reading area for when tags go in and out of the interrogation zone. On the other hand, if the reader is mobile when the reader reads tags, it is called mobile RFID. An Electrical Engineering student of the University of Malaysia; Mohd Firdaus Bin Mahyidin designed RFID technology students' attendance system 2008 [10], which only takes attendance of students and stores the information in the database. The block diagram of his project is shown figure 4. However, this system does not the incorporate a door unit which allows access to only registered users.Fig. 4: RFID Technology Students attendance system. Comparing Barcode with RFID is done on table 1 . Table 1: comparisons between Barcode and RFID 2 3 4 5 6 7 Barcode Rely on the user to make contact to the reader, hence cannot be read from a distance In Barcode, only one card read at a time is allowed. Embedded information cann ot be updated, hence the restriction of the repeated overwriting if the embedded election information for each card It does not allow for the increase technologies like surveillance cameras to be activated with an employee being in the vicinity.RFID Do not require contact with reader, hence can be read from a distance. Embedded information can be updated; this allows the repeated over-writing if embedded electronic information for each card. RFID has increased technologies like surveillance cameras to be activated in onjunction with an employee being in their vicinity. It is slower and requires time of sight to RFID is faster and does not require line of function. sight. It has lower data storage transponder. It has higher data storage.

Monday, July 29, 2019

Bank of America Essay Example for Free (#2)

Bank of America Essay The apparent problem in the Bank of America case study is that Jen McDonald (head of the Bank of America digital marketing group), and Douglas Brown (senior vice president of mobile product development) received requests to create mobile apps more specific for individual businesses as a way to gain leverage (Supta & Herman, 2012). Brown, specifically, was hesitant to add additional mobile app features as he feared it would make the application far too complex. Not only would it prove to be difficult for some users to understand, more features often make applications run more slowly, which could complicate the idea of mobile banking. In addition this could possibly give the customer a more negative experience. To cite the problem specifically, Brown stated â€Å"App complexity has led to some high-profile failures in the market place. This carries a huge risk† (Supta & Herman, 2012). Furthermore, Bank of America was provided $20 billion in capital from the United States government during the financial crisis under leadership of CEO Kenneth Lewis (Supta & Herman, 2012). Lewis had concerns that certain investors and customers would start to correlate Bank of America with Citigroup, who had previously given up 36% of its ownership to the federal government (Supta & Herman, 2012). This resulted in Brian Moynihan (head of consumer and small business banking) taking over as CEO on January 1, 2010 (Supta & Herman, 2012). Constraints and available options One of Bank of America’s options was to create different apps to target different groups and market segments, which proved to be somewhat of a risk. Not only was the organization concerned for the customers reaction, Bank of America was also hesitant because mobile apps are costly and in doing so, technology resources would be taken from other essential areas of banking such as online banking and atm machines. At this time customers were not completely trusting in working with their banks, as financial struggles were becoming more and more apparent. In order to give theBank of America the trusted name and customer loyalty it had previously held for so long, executives decided Mobile banking was the right path to take in order to save the company. Analysis and Evaluation The bank of America officially launched their mobile banking application in May of 2007. This included the ability to bank on the customers phones either by application or by accessing the mobile web through their phones browser. Douglas Brown confirmed that the success of the mobile application was astounding as the company gained four million mobile banking customers over the time span of less than three years (Supta & Herman, 2012). Because of the high level of success, business managers were eager to update the applications, in an effort to raise the level of functionality even higher. This proved to be a decision that had to be carefully considered by the Bank of America corporate team. Strengths: The Bank of America already holds the title of being one of the most prestigious banks and a leading company in the U. S. Because of their household name, marketing new products prove to be fairly easy; however identifying a product that customers will adopt and figuring out the target market are essential to Bank of America’s success. An additional strength of the mobile banking application was the timing in correlation to the launch of the application and the launch of the iPhone, making Bank of America the first bank to be able to offer a banking application on the iPhone. The most used features of mobile banking came from viewing account balances and viewing transaction details, making debit card holders the most popular users. After the mobile banking launch more customers opened checking accounts in the months of the introduction of mobile banking and did in fact use the application during that time. Weaknesses:  A weakness shown by Bank of America proved to be within technology adoption and which smart phones the mobile applications could be used by. The Bank of America was slow to adopt SMS technology and access to mobile banking was limited. It was only available to those who used online banking with Bank of America, therefore leaving a huge portion of customers out and feeling negatively about the new product. Another weakness in the new mobile application was that it had to be created with more features than competing mobile applications, which added the risk of making the mobile app more complex. Complexity is a weakness when striving to offer a simple and functional upgraded product to customers. Furthermore, the bank was recovering from the financial crisis, which caused a great loss for a company as big as themselves, as customers had to put a curb to their spending. They also feared they damaged their name in asking for $20 billion in federal backing which proved to be a huge mistake. Bank of America did not want to be associated with other banks that had borrowed capital, but in turn were forced to give up a percentage of their company. Opportunities: In analyzing the Kotler & Keller text, marketing opportunity is described as a buyer taking interest in something that has the probability to make a profit (Kotler & Keller, 2009). The introduction of mobile banking was a huge opportunity that the Bank of America capitalized on. When mobile banking was introduced costs per transaction started at 10 cents and were expected to drop to 3 to 4 cents. ATM costs were already 1. 34 per transaction which provided an advantage to debit card holders with low account balances. They also benefited in that they could easily check their account balance through their phones before making a purchase. The Bank of America capitalized on the opportunity to offer this feature to customers for absolutely no cost. This was a huge plus in gaining additional customers and fans of mobile banking, as other banks had already begun to waive ATM fees during the times of the market dropping. Mobile banking was a way for Bank of America to bounce back after financial crisis and offer users an experience they had never before been exposed to. The novelty of the design and idea would bring trust and value back to the company. Threats: A potential threat of mobile banking was that expanding on apps and adding new features can turn potential customers off because it tends to make banking more complicated throughout the introduction process. Surveys and research also showed that 44% of customers did not see a need or any type of value within mobile banking. When introducing a new product, buyer behavior tends to be very guarded as customers are reluctant to trust a pone application to keep their banking statements and accounts secure at all times. Major competitors are also a threat that the Bank of America faced. Major Banks such as Wellsfargo, Citigroup and PNC, to name a few, also offer mobile banking with virtually the same functions and applications. Mobile banking was also seen as a threat because of the high initial costs, however, from a marketing perspective, if the Bank of America were to pay extra costs to set their mobile applications apart from competing banks, the additional features would be worth the price in customer popularity and satisfaction. Recommendations Because mobile banking has been introduced by so many other banks, the best recommendation would be to create a form of mobile banking that is more secure and user friendly than competing applications. These are the two issues that customers seemed to have the most doubts about, so putting extra emphasis on these areas will surely set the Bank of America apart from others. Another recommendation is to target one particular audience and market to them specifically, therefore making age and stage in the life cycle of great importance. It is likely that the younger generation will be much more open to yet another phone application, as it is the norm for them, and will provide huge ease to another aspect of their lives. This may result in the younger generation taking more initiative when it comes to banking and gaining more responsibility in this aspect of their lives. Phone applications makes it easy to transfer money and to check balances, providing an awareness of your funds 24/7, opposed to only during banking hours. Kotler & Keller advices marketers to take the following three steps when marketing a product: 1. Compare it with a product that consumers already know about, making it more comfortable for them to base the purchase off of a past decision (Kotler & Keller, 2012). 2. â€Å"†¦The lure of â€Å"free† is almost irresistible† (Kotler & Keller, 2012). 3. Consumers often experience the â€Å"optimism bias† or â€Å"positivity illusion. † They tend to overestimate their chances of experiencing a positive outcome and underestimate their chances of experiencing a negative outcome (Kotler & Keller, 2012). These steps are recommended to the Bank of America’s target audience in order to raise popularity and awareness of the mobile banking application. In other words, it is essential to understand the meaning of consumer behavior. Kotler & Keller define consumer behavior as how individuals come up with ideas and experiences that work to satisfy the customer’s wants and needs. The customer’s desires will be met in that the mobile banking app will be free to current customers, which will already account for a huge part of the appeal. Compared with online banking, which customers are likely to be more familiar with, the target audience will see the mobile app as an easier, faster version of a feature they already value. Furthermore, because of the optimism bias and positivity illusion, customers using this product are more likely to feel it will improve their financial security and well-being. Lessons Learned In the review of the entire Bank of America case study, it is apparent that control was an issue that was brought up as the main concern of the customer in accepting the new application. Customers were weary at first, as they had concerns for the security of their finances and feared they were giving up control of their bank accounts to a mobile application. In retrospect, the customer actually gained more control over their finances as they were able to access them from nearly anywhere in the world. This goes to show how identifying with the customers emotions and providing them with a product that gains their trust and eases their concerns, will make the innovation and the company that much more successful. Bank of America. (2016, Sep 09).

Primary Health Care in Developing Countries Essay

Primary Health Care in Developing Countries - Essay Example Primary health care is essential health care made universally accessible to individuals and families in the community by means acceptable to them, through their full participation and at a cost that the community and country can afford. It forms an integral part both of the country's health system of which it is the nucleus and of the overall social and economic development of the community (WHO). It values to achieve health for all and requires health systems that "Put people at the centre of health care"1. To achieve this, there is a need to understand citizen's expectation of health and health care and to see to it that their voice and choice decisively influences the way in which health services are designed and operated. The Alma Ata Declaration in 1978 gave an insight into the understanding of primary health care. It mobilized a "Primary Health Care movement" of professionals and institutions, governments and civil society organizations, researchers and grassroots organizations that undertook to tackle the "politically, socially and economically unacceptable"2 health inequalities in all countries. It viewed health as an integral part of the socio-economic development of a country. It provided the most holistic understanding to health and the framework that States needed to pursue to achieve the goals of development. The Declaration recommended that primary health care should include at least: education concerning prevailing health problems and methods of identifying, preventing and controlling them; promotion of food supply and proper nutrition, and adequate supply of safe water and basic sanitation; maternal and child health care, including family planning; immunization against major infectious di seases; prevention and control of locally endemic diseases; appropriate treatment of common diseases and injuries; promotion of mental health and provision of essential drugs. It emphasized the need for strong first-level care with strong secondary- and tertiary-level care linked to it. It called for an integration of preventive, promotive, curative and rehabilitative health services that had to be made accessible and available to the people, and this was to be guided by the principles of universality, comprehensiveness and equity. In one sense, primary health care reasserted the role and responsibilities of the State, and recognized that health is influenced by a multitude of factors and not just the health services. It also recognized the need for a multi-sectoral approach to health and clearly stated that primary health care had to be linked to other sectors. At the same time, the Declaration emphasized on complete and organized community participation, and ultimate self-reliance with individuals, families and communities assuming more responsibility for their own health, facilitated by support from groups such as the local government, agencies, local leaders, voluntary groups, youth and women's groups, consumer groups, other non-governmental organizations, etc. The Declaration affirmed the need for a balanced distribution of available resources (WHO 1978). THE INDIAN SCENARIO Demographic, Social and

Sunday, July 28, 2019

Regional instituie for childern and adollescents,baltimore-future Essay

Regional instituie for childern and adollescents,baltimore-future nursing research studies - Essay Example Emotionally handicapped adolescents who are in a condition to live in a community setting are assisted through measures that make them aware of the situation but live in harmony with the rest of the population. It is also common for nurses at the center to address the negative behaviors and attributes associated with drug abuse. They look at psychiatric behaviors from use of drugs or from withdrawal, anger, self-hating, low self-esteem and self-injuries behavior. They have recently introduced detoxification procedures for adolescents with a drug problem. They also ensure that the youths engage in meaningful interaction while they are at the center. Some mental problems may require a residential setting to treat. RICA has this setting to facilitate continuous treatment of adolescents with therapy. They live at the establishment for some time before the doctors can certify their improvement and their ability to live accordingly with the rest of the population. This is an ideal strategy in treatment of young people with behavioral, learning and emotional

Saturday, July 27, 2019

Buying house is better than renting an apartment Term Paper

Buying house is better than renting an apartment - Term Paper Example Moreover, the residents do not have to worry about moving from one rented apartment to another, if the landlord decides to sell it or rent it out to someone else. Buying a house is also a favourable option due to the current economic situation. The dip in the property price has enabled many people to invest in a house, which is a far better option than renting an apartment. Keywords: buying, house, renting, apartment, property, investment, mortgage. Buying a House is the Winning Choice Did you know that you can purchase a house for $100k and have a mortgage of $900.00 dollars, which is less than average rent? According to World Time News Report, the national average two-bedroom fair market rent is â€Å"$928 a month† (2009). During the same year, the median sales price for those homes was $223,800; while the average sales price was $257,500, which is roughly about $800 per month. (Wyndham Capital Mortgage, Inc., 2009) This comparison of the average monthly rent and the average monthly instalment, in case of buying a house explains why buying a house is the winning choice. Buying a house is a long term investment; it gives financial security and a sense of ownership. Home ownership is not an easy task though; yet it is extremely beneficial in the long run in a number of ways. The current situation in real estate market gives one an optimum chance to invest in a house as, â€Å"home prices have fallen approximately 10% year-over-year in most markets...† (Lynn, 2009, p.5) Home ownership provides an investing advantage. Every payment one makes towards the mortgage, guarantees ownership. Any major updates or changes that one desires to make to the property will increase the value of the house. Under normal circumstances, home resale values tend to increase over the years. According to statistics provided by U.S Department of Housing and Urban Development, homes that were sold for $90k in 1990 are now worth about $150k; despite the fact that in 2005, th ose homes where at about $250k. (2011) It is a relatively easier way to buy a house by paying only 5% or as less as 3% down-payment of the total price. If a person has an FHA loan, which are secured and protected by the government, then buying a house becomes an easy process. This way, a person can get a slow-start and gain ownership. On the contrary, renting an apartment requires at least $3000 upfront- which is a lot of money! In other words, a house that is worth $100k can be purchased with $5000 down-payment and a monthly mortgage of about $950. However, the same house shall be rented for approximately $1200, exclusive of the initial deposit. Thus, buying a house is a viable option, particularly in the current economic situation and the state of the real estate market. Buying a house is considered as an opportunity to make profit out of the oscillating prices of the real estate market. A person can even get a chance to sell out the house if a potential buyer offers a higher pric e than the actual price at which it was bought. Thus, it proves to be a sound financial investment as contrasted with renting an apartment. Buying a house also gives a sense of financial security as one is aware of the fact that he/she shall have to pay the same amount of monthly mortgage for the nest thirty years. This is of high significance, as it allows the home owner to plan his savings and expenses, accordingly. On the

Friday, July 26, 2019

Source Annotation Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 250 words - 1

Source Annotation - Essay Example On average, Americans spend 20 to 30 or even 100 times as much on medical services and devices as what they would cost in a shopping mall (Zuckerman 1). The article tries to get a reason for the high costs. It cites the partnership of most hospitals and private insurance companies as one reason for the fee hike. The insurance companies have a power in negotiating with hospitals over a patient covered by them. They pinpoint the hospital in their grid of providers. Insured patients can get discounts that are thirty to fifty percent beyond low Medical care charges. Zuckerman (2) further adds that doctors tend to over-test to avoid malpractice and misdiagnosis to avoid malpractice and misdiagnosis. The high-tech devices used in the hospitals drive the costs to bizarre levels too. The author of the article has used information from the analysis of works of medical practitioners. For example, he has cited one Steven Brill, who initially exposed the impact of insurance companies on hospitals. The study also has much of its information from the federal government sources such as where it points out that readmissions alone cost over $25 billion a year and that medical care budget may well hit $600 billion this

Thursday, July 25, 2019

Innovation & Entrepreneurship ( Market Research & Feasibility Study ) Paper

Innovation & Entrepreneurship ( Market & Feasibility Study ) - Research Paper Example The report will cover among other things the market demand for fast food in London and risks that may be encountered by investing in such a business in London. Objectives The objective of this feasibility study is to examine the suitability and riskiness of investing in a hospitality industry in London, U.K. This is because we have a great interest of establishing a fast food restaurant in London city. We strongly believe that fast food is doing so well in the city, which will enable us generate high profits in the long run. As a result, we intend to secure commercial premises along Cambridge Street, where, we believe, the business will do so well. We will conduct the feasibility study through market research involving interviews, questionnaires and direct observations. Products and services The restaurant will be serving a variety of U.K. cuisines such as burger, chips, pizza, french fries, tea, and coffee among other delicacies (Euromonitor International Par.4). Our foods will be s erved within the business premises, and customers will have a chance to have a take-way. Since the business will be located within one of the busiest streets in London, we believe that we will have many customers, both local and international tourists who visit the city and who will come to our restaurant. With the high sales expected throughout the season, we are optimistic that the business will generate high returns. In addition, we intend to offer the best-prepared cuisine in London as a whole. Market Research To understand the suitability of Cambridge Street as a good place for fast food restaurant, we conducted research through direct observations, interviews and the use of questionnaires with the residents of the London city. Findings showed that a majority of the London residents eat a lot of fast foods prepared in restaurants, as noted by Kuhn (Par.3). Findings also showed that a majority were young people between the ages of 10 to 60 years. At the same time, we found out t hat students also like eating fast foods, particularly those we intend to offer. In this regard, about 95 % of those interviewed stated that they prefer eating fast foods in restaurants because of lack of enough time to prepare food at home (Ruddick Par.6). Furthermore, they stated that fast foods are cost-effective and delicious. Others argued that eating in a restaurant also gives them opportunity to socialize with their friends and families, as noted by Boella (84). Pricing and promotion Based on the feasibility study, we discovered that our business would face stiff competition from other restaurants in this area. However, the good thing is that the closest restaurant will be within a mile from where we intend to locate the business. However, to beat the probable competition, we will carry out an intensive marketing and promotion campaign throughout London and the U.K. at large to create awareness about our company and the cuisine we offer. We also intend to ensure that we use t he latest technology to ensure high quality in the foods we serve. At the same time, we shall ensure that we maintain the highest standards of hygiene within and around our business premises. In addition, our resaurant will charge reasonable prices, which we believe, will keep our customers coming. This will

Wednesday, July 24, 2019

Benefits of Partnerships with Nonprofits Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2000 words

Benefits of Partnerships with Nonprofits - Essay Example Public Administration in partnership with these entities can only assure a gain on both sides. Having both at the board table can only improve and extend the services presently being rendered to the public (Carroll, 1989). Collaboration is one of the things that have been missing over the last 30 years in the development of Public Administration and that collaboration can build strong interrelated teams for a better public trust. The world of the non-profit has continued to expand over the last 30 years. Public Administrations expected responsibilities have also expanded. Traditionally the two groups have worked alone, even being in competition with each other at times. This causes a lack of collaboration and less than adequate use of funds on both sides. Funds, under today's circumstances, are not increasing and neither is the public's trust of how funds are being used (Butz, 2009). The building of partnerships between Public Administration and the non-profits may be the answer to how we manage better use of funds available for the better of the public. We will discuss how non-profit and Public Administration is presently working and what a partnership may accomplish. Nonprofits today are very inter-related with communities and it is sometimes difficult to understand what their impact on the community truly is. They support local economies through employment as well as collection of needed funding. There is usually a great deal of public trust and funds throughout the community are collected through various methods to permit these to function. Grants frequently support large numbers of them and with each of these grants comes accountability that is often difficult to achieve. On the same note Public Administration has a great deal of engagement in the public good and how and what areas are funded in a community. Community housing becomes an extreme need for both sides and therefore is an important consideration for the possibility of a partnership. At this time, the community at large may see both Public Administration and the not-profit housing industry as repetitive (Jennings, 2005) as well as somewhat competitive. There are many concerns that there is a great deal of redundancy as these agencies depend on volunteered funds, government funding and foundation funding alike. Would it be more efficient for Public Administration to be involved in a partnership here to decrease gaps in services as well as gaps in skills necessary to provide these services (Jennings, 2005) Recently because of the thought that redundancy is happening, there has been a decrease in overall confidence in nonprofit organizations in some states that are handling the housing piece. This might be remedied by having some administrative duties being provided by public administration. This might also help to close the gap of government funding in the social sector, increasing the funding that both have available to do their work. Public Administration can help the public with experience in building the capacity of the local

Tuesday, July 23, 2019

Identify the major issues affecting the individual in the two chapters Assignment

Identify the major issues affecting the individual in the two chapters in terms of No pity by Joseph Shapiro - Assignment Example This group started a formal program in the dormitory in order to offer rehabilitation services to the disabled persons in 1968. The group gained much strength when the counselor evicted two persons for low grades and his action attracted protests from both disabled and able-bodied students forcing him to resign. Their power expanded from the university to the city where they demanded for the city to cut curb on disabled people. Through the movement, the disabled students got a grant of $81,000 that helped them get accessible apartments with personal attendants. Regulation of section 504 was written by the secretaries of Welfare, Education and Health after a 25-days protest. However, this would costs a lot of funds which were unavailable at the time. This is because building and operating independent living centers would have been very expensive. As such, states were awarded the money to operate the centers with a condition to keep out of political activism. In 1980s and 1990s, students who were graduating from high school were empowered and equipped with a sense of independent living. There has been a series of activism since them with physically disabled persons seeking to gain more independence. One major plausible achievement can be traced to a landmark decision made by the United States Supreme Court which give disabled persons and their families to make decisions on their choice of residence as opposed to regulations that were imposed by the federal government. In the case of Olmstead v. L. C., the court ruled that disabled persons can choose to live in a facility or be de-institutionalized and move into the community. The local, state and federal governments were challenges to make more accessible facilities and services in order to reduce the challenges disabled people face in the community. In this chapter, the deaf students are agitated due to discrimination in the

Sapporo beer Essay Example for Free

Sapporo beer Essay Japan’s Sapporo Holdings said on Thursday it would enter the Vietnamese market by taking a 65 percent stake in a beer joint venture with Vietnam National Tobacco Corp to tap its fast-growing market. It marks the first major overseas expansion in three years by Sapporo, the smallest of Japan’s four major brewers, as bigger rivals Kirin and Suntory have been aggressively snapping up overseas businesses to grow beyond a shrinking domestic market. â€Å"Vietnam is Asia’s third-largest beer market after China and Japan and this is a fast-growing market,† said Tatsuya Komatsu, a Sapporo spokesman. The company will acquire a 50 percent stake in the venture from Danish brewer Carlsberg and 15 percent from Vietnam National Tobacco for a total of $25. 4 million. The joint venture will build a beer factory in Vietnam and is scheduled to startselling Sapporo brand beer in early 2012, it said in a statement. The venture aims for sales in 2019 of 150,000 kilolitres or $128 million. Sapporo said it will actively seek further acquisition opportunities to enlarge itsoverseas business, which now accounts for less than 10 percent of its revenues. Sapporo, the maker of Yebisu brand beer, acquired Canadian brewer Sleeman in 2006 for 30 billion yen ($340 million), but has been overshadowed by Kirin and Suntory in overseas expansion. Kirin has spent $1. 5 billion in the past two years to buy Australia’s National Foods and Dairy Farmers and $2. 8 billion to take full ownership of Australia’s No. 2 beer maker Lion Nathan. It also acquired a 49 percent stake in the Philippines’ San Miguel Brewery for $1. 4 billion. Asahi Breweries, locked in a fierce battle with Kirin for No. 1 slot in Japan’s beer market, said recently it could spend up to 400 billion yen ($4. 6 billion) on acquisitions over the next few years, with an eye on Asian markets. The Japanese brewers have been scrambling to diversify their products and geographic reach to reduce their reliance on the domestic beer market, which has lost 15 percent in volume in the past decade as the economy sputters and the population shrinks. HA NOI — The Japanese beer maker Sapporo Holdings plans to enter the domestic market from early 2012 through the purchase of a majority stake in Kronenbourg Viet Nam Ltd. Sapporo Holdings said it would buy a 65 per cent stake for about US$23 million in Kronenbourg Viet Nam, which is equally owned by Carlsberg Brewery A/S and the Viet Nam National Tobacco Corp (Vinataba). After the deal closes, which is due in January next year, a joint venture betweenSapporo Holdings and Vinataba will be set up with the latter holding 35 per cent of the joint venture’s stake. At that time, Kronenbourg Viet Nam will change its name into Sapporo Viet Nam Ltd. Sapporo said the joint venture would begin construction on a new plant on the outskirts of HCM City. The plant is scheduled to begin operations from 2012. Sapporo expects to earn a turnover of roughly $115 million within a decade from the Vietnamese market, with a predicted annual growth rate of more than 10 per cent for years to come. The joint venture has targeted a market share of roughly 3 per cent in Viet Nam by 2019. Sapporo also has plans to export beer produced in Japan to Viet Nam. The Japanese beer maker decided to expand its business in other Asian countries in a move to offset declining beer sales in Japan due to a shrinking population and a gloomy economic outlook. — VNS In 2010 , Sapporo has arrived in Vietnam and established Sapporo Vietnam Co. ( a joint venture between Tobacco Corporation Vietnam ( VINATABA ) and JSC Sapporo Holdings Ltd. for a total contribution from Japan 71 % ) . 11/ 2011, the Sapporo Factory in Long An Vietnam was officially put into operation . The plant has production capacity of 40 million liters / year , but to meet the goal of becoming a major production base for Southeast Asian beer market capacity will be increased gradually over the period 2015 to reach 100 million liters / year and in 2019 will reach 150 million liters / year . 4/2012 , Sapporo official launch sales activities . Sapporo time in more than 4,000 retail stores , restaurants , hotels, mainly in Vietnam . Sapporo has now launched 4 product lines premium beer : Sapporo Premium Beer Bottle 330 ml , 330 ml cans of beer Sapporo Premium , Sapporo Premium Beer 650 ml silver cans and beer Sapporo Premium 20L . In particular , products Can Silver ( silver cans ) is a typical representative of elegance and luxury of Sapporo Premium Beer . This product has a higher alcohol content than other types a bit , with a large capacity and a unique design that Sapporo beer can only be Sapporo is the only beer company in the world combined study of barley and hops to produce a formula to create the most perfect beer . Based on these studies , the Sapporo today have developed a new barley varieties better and Vietnam Sapporo Factory is also used . When the Vietnam market , to be able to produce beers with similar quality beers produced in Japan and in accordance with consumer tastes here , Sapporo choose the most appropriate type of yeast in 1000 different yeast species from the research Center of Sapporo in Japan . After Japan and Canada , Vietnam is the place where Sapporo beer factory and expect this will become the manufacturing center of the Southeast Asian market . Because Vietnam is the third largest beer market in Asia , the turnover of 3 billion liters of beer in 2020 and expected to double . Sapporo Vietnam not only passionate creative challenges overcome and the framework of the usual practice , but also to share the moments of happiness and joy winning hand. Thats why Sapporo Premium market presence in Vietnam as a premium beer brand .

Monday, July 22, 2019

Extended commentary of The Convergence of the Twain by Thomas Hardy Essay Example for Free

Extended commentary of The Convergence of the Twain by Thomas Hardy Essay On the Title: Hardy uses two interesting words: ‘convergence’ and ‘twain’. A convergence is a meeting of two paths, or entities – in this case, a collision! ‘Twain’ is an archaic word for ‘two’, i.e.; both the ‘Titanic’ and the iceberg. Such a title immediately positions the reader to the direction in which the poem will go. Hardy is not, as many elegiac poems of the day were, preparing to mourn the loss of the ship and the lives upon it but rather proceeding to examine the philosophical nature of the collision; perhaps it was fated? The other current use of â€Å"twain† was in the pseudonym â€Å"Mark Twain,† made famous by the publication – initially in England – of â€Å"The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn† in 1886. Clems adopted the nom de plume to suggest â€Å"uncomfortable waters† or â€Å"tight navigation,† since two fathoms (â€Å"twain,† the sounding of a Mississippi deck-hand measuring the depth beneath the keel) would be dangerous for a steamboat. Background Information: The ocean liner ‘RMS Titanic’ famously sank, at two o’clock in the morning, upon the 15th April 1912. The disaster claimed 1,502 lives. Hardy was asked to write a poem to be read at a charity concert to raise funds in aid of the tragedy disaster fund. It was first published as part of the souvenir program for that event. Overall Structure: Hardy writes eleven regular triplet stanzas, with an AAA rhyme scheme throughout. The use of triplets allows for a more thorough exploration of ideas in each stanza; unified by the use of the rhyme scheme. Perhaps he also does this to create the effect of inevitability, for the rhymed words form their own paths coincident that lead to a preset conclusion – the reader knows, that is, with which sound each stanza will end after he or she has only read the first line of that stanza. However, that knowledge only appears are having read the first few stanzas or so, echoing the idea that knowledge of those coincident paths of which the poem speaks is not always immediately discernible. Themes: The Vanity of Man, The Relationship between Man and Nature, Fate, Classical Entities. Difficult Language Notes: â€Å"The Immanent Will† – a force of fate. â€Å"Salamandrine† – associated with the salamander (a mythical creature) The poem runs in straight sets but I wish to divide in two for ease of analysis. ‘Part I’ exists from Stanzas I to VI, whilst ‘Part II’ takes the form of Stanzas VII to XII. Part I Notes: First Stanza Notes: Hardy introduces his poem in medias res – the ship has been sunk and lies silently at the bottom of the ocean. He creates a calm effect over his poem through the consonance of the ‘s’ sounds: â€Å"In a solitude of the sea Deep from human vanity, And the Pride of Life that planned her, stilly couches she.† Particular elements of diction are worthy of note: * â€Å"Deep from human vanity† – this line points to the emerging theme of man’s failed vanity, in creating such a grand object to rule over the natural world, only to have Nature smite it. The phrase â€Å"Pride of Life† accentuates this principle. Note how Hardy uses capital letters to make otherwise simple abstract nouns definitive. Although this is pre-emptive, I will now examine the theme of vaingloriousness (and point out notable pieces of evidence throughout the remainder of the poem) which Hardy presents. He uses irony to evoke the ridiculousness of mans plans. In stanzas I through to V, he juxtaposes images of the ships opulence, such as its mirrors meant / To glass the opulent and the ship’s gilded gear with images of the cold currents, â€Å"sea-worms† and moon-eyed fishes that now flow, crawl and swim through those former interiors. This creates a tangible image of the human vanity referred to in this first stanza; what people design for greatness ultimately ends up in a place of abasement. * â€Å"Stilly† is a highly unusual adverb. Hardy uses it to create a sense of ‘peace’. This is furthered by â€Å"solitude† and â€Å"couches†. ‘Couches’ suggests restfulness, or an equanimity. S.L.S considers an image of a ‘death bed’ upon the sea floor. Second Stanza Notes: Hardy focuses upon images of death and change in this stanza: â€Å"Steel chambers, late the pyres Of her salamandrine fires Cold currents third, and turn to tidal rhythmic lyres.† The furnaces of the ship, which contained the salamandrine fires of her engines (a form of LIFE), now have Cold currents thrid (note the a contrast in temperature – and consequently, a contrast in living state) running through them. ‘Thrid’ itself is another reference to the title, as an archaic word for ‘two’. Where there was once heat and life driving the engines of the ship, there is now coldness and death. A further juxtaposition within this second stanza is the use of the word pyre†, as it connotes funerals and death, while the use of salamandrine insinuates a certain tenacity for life (as salamanders were said to live through fires) that could be associated with the ‘Unsinkable Ship’ idea – there was a theory prior to the sinking, now tragically ironic, that the Titanic was unable to sink. Yet, for all of the tragic (or formerly energetic, given the nature of fire) nature of the ship, Hardy once again returns to ideas of peace and harmony. â€Å"Rhythmic tidal lyres† are reminiscent of the classical entities – such as Apollo’s lyre and his place in Arcadia – and consequently calming images. The distinct iambic meter in this phrase aids the calming lilt of the lines. Hardy presents the Titanic’s corpse in a peaceful light, however chilling and panicked her death. Third and Fourth Stanza Notes: I have above described the idea of vanity. I will pick out key phrases from these stanzas which support this idea – their key point is to achieve the above: * â€Å"mirrors meant to glass the opulent† CONTRASTED TO â€Å"grotesque, slimed, dumb, indifferent† sea worms. Note the cruelty and emphasis on â€Å"indifferent†. * â€Å"Jewels in joy designed† CONTRASTED TO â€Å"lie lightless, all their sparkles bleared and black and blind† Note the use of polysyndeton. * â€Å"gilded gear†. Note alliteration. Fifth and Sixth Stanzas: Thus far Hardy has thoroughly examined the idea of vanity and the sunken ship itself. At stanza VI, Hardy changes his focus to the process by which the ship sank, in reference to Hardy’s ‘question’ formulated in stanza V. V â€Å"Dim moon-eyed fishes near Gaze at the gilded gear And query: ‘What does this vaingloriousness down here? VI Well: while was fashioning This creature of cleaving wing, The Immanent Will that stirs and urges everything† It is obvious that Hardy engineers the explanation of the collision as a response to the â€Å"fishes’† question – although one would initially expect the final line of stanza V to be rhetorical. Before diverging upon the analysis of Hardy’s response, note some key elements of this stanza: * â€Å"moon-eyed† (white and dull) contrasts with the shiny, golden nature of the â€Å"gilded†. This accentuates the differences between the metallic (man-made) ship and the natural world. Also note the alliteration used in this line. Question why? * In an final assault on the vanitas vanitatum, observe that Hardy utilises anthropomorphisation to allow even the fish to question Man’s will in creating such ‘vaingloriousness’ – a Natural force (perhaps a personification of Nature itself?) labels the ship a vanity. What consequence does this have? This query, although appearing rhetorical, is answered by Hardy. Denoted by the use of ‘Well’, he switches to a colloquial register – this again adds to the sense of a Volta at stanza VI. Also note the sudden introduction of prominent enjambment at the end of the poem. The sense of stanza VI rolls into the VIIth, in direct opposition to the previous use of ‘poetic closure’ to end all previous stanzas – Hardy normally uses a form of punctuation. Now it’s gone. Apart from being a ‘change’ in its innate self, the enjambment aids in increasing the pace of the poem. This is highly significant. Seeing as, from this point forth, Hardy creates a ‘convergence of the twain’ within the poem itself – i.e.: he brings the two entities together (I will later explore this process in detail) from obscurity to the point of their collision – then increasing the pace at which the two entities move (which is obviously determined by the pace of the poem) must bring them together faster. This adds to the sense of movement, of fast movement and of dramatic effect. Well done, Mr. Hardy. Note some language details: â€Å"Creature of cleaving wing† is a very interesting phrase. â€Å"Cleaving† has multiple meanings, all of which are appropriate to Hardy’s imagery. Primarily, he may be imagining the ship as it ‘cleaves’ through the water, as all good ships should do. Remember, in its day the Titanic was the fastest liner afloat. â€Å"The cleaving wing† may therefore be the iron bow of the boat. Notice how Hardy is utilising additional anthropomorphisation, in referring to the ship as both a â€Å"creature† and one with â€Å"wing[s]†. The iceberg, however, remains inanimate. I doubt that there are any really deliberate poetic techniques to be synthesized from this but perhaps Hardy encourages a larger empathic response from the animate ship than from the inanimate iceberg? However, we must also acknowledge the metallic â€Å"knife-like† associations with ‘cleaving’ – like ‘cleaver’. This has a highly inanimate connotation. [Another weak point, acknowledged.] There also exists an archaic definition in the verb ‘to cleave’ – as in a Biblical usage – meaning ‘to join in matrimony’. This is of enormous interest. Hardy later plays a great deal upon the idea of the twain being marital (and even sexual) mates. Throughout the poem he refers to them with terms connotating a â€Å"confirmed relationship†. We may be â€Å"reading into† the phrase a little too deeply but it is a comment worthy of note. Perhaps Hardy is using the archaic definition of the verb to further advance his marital imagery? He is certainly no stranger to using such odd vocabulary; observe â€Å"The Darkling Thrush†! Finally, I wish to examine ‘The Immanent Will’. â€Å"Immanent† is not an archaic spelling of â€Å"imminent† – do not get confused in terms of these different words! â€Å"The Immanent Will† is somewhat comparable, in terms of a philosophical idea, to the Christian concept of the â€Å"Holy Spirit† or â€Å"Holy Ghost†. It is a spiritual, but existent, entity within every object which determines its fate or actions. Christianity has branches – notably in Catholicism – which believe in a pre-determined plan, of God’s design. In other words, we are all on a plan set out by God. The Holy Spirit helps us to achieve what God wishes; it provides inner strength and resolve. Hardy did not have an easy relationship with religion; born a Christian, he went through multiple tumultuous periods of atheistic belief. That’s probably why he hasn’t gone and just written; â€Å"God, or some deified entity, has allowed and planned for the demise of this here ship. And that’s why the iceberg, which could have been anywhere in a 3,000 mile radius of the vast Atlantic Ocean, just so happened to strike the ship. Deal with it.† So, instead, he has substituted a strictly non-religious term to his idea of Fate. Indeed, he later refers to the Classical ‘Fate’ entities to again replace any otherwise religious terminology. Remember also that Hardy is not aiming to criticise Christianity in a poem intended to raise money for the victims’ families. Thus, clear religious controversy was not a good idea. Stanzas VIII and IX Notes: â€Å"And as the smart ship grew In stature, grace and hue, In shadowy silent distance grew the iceberg too. Alien they seemed to be: No mortal eye could see The intimate welding of the later history,† Again, Hardy invites further comparison through the use of juxtaposition; he now places the two entities in a relative time scale. The use of the word ‘as’ creates this effect, as it brings almost a simile-esque comparative sense to the stanzas. We must focus on the idea of the twain ‘growing’ – as that is the image which Hardy evokes – and the way in which both are joint in the use of the same verb. The obvious mental image is one of a familial relationship; they grow simultaneously but are fatally unaware of each other. Indeed, the distance between them is made explicitly clear and further emphasized by the alliteration used with â€Å"shadowy† and â€Å"silent†. Observe, in the phrase â€Å"In stature, grace and hue†, Hardy returns to the original theme of the ship’s grandeur. He appears, in this occurrence, to be rather more commending (or perhaps simply more mournful) of the ship and its purpose. Stanza IX further dwells upon the notion of fate. Indeed, Hardy utilises some more imagery worthy of note, full of oxymorons. â€Å"The intimate welding of the later history† It takes little to see that this further advances the ideas of both the twain’s ‘marital intimacy’, of the metal-related imagery associated with the ship, but also, in the final few words, the idea of Fate. If one can know, in the present, the details of the future’s past – in other words, the near future – then surely one is saying in an oddly convoluted way that a certain action is destined to soon take place? It’s an oxymoronic (â€Å"later history† is oxymoronic in my book!) way of saying the same as before; the twain are destined to collide. Stanzas X and XI Notes: â€Å"Or sign that they were bent By paths coincident On being anon twin halves of one august event, Till the Spinner of the Years Said ‘Now!’ And each one hears, And consummation comes, and jars two hemispheres. Very little needs to be said about the action in these stanza. The Twain collide, bringing together the long wait in both metaphorical and poetic terms. Hardy’s precise choice of words and imagery is somewhat more interesting, however. For example: * â€Å"Paths coincident† does not point to a coincidence, as one might initially assume, but rather to a â€Å"co-incident† (i.e. â€Å"together†) act. The Twain are, on reflection, on a course which emulates two graphical lines, in the way that they bisect. Does this then also reflect a sense of Fated entity? Graphical lines do not change, thus their ‘collision’ is determined and sealed. * â€Å"Twin halves of one august event† reminds the reader of the action and precise existence of the collision. In the end, the act was a very physical, not philosophical one. Hardy acknowledges this, but attempts to draw out the unified nature of the Twain, in the intrinsic act of their collision. Note that the usual use of â€Å"august† to mean â€Å"awe inspiring or admiration; majestic† is not intended by Hardy here in a positive way. He merely wishes to express wonder at the grand, if tragic, culmination of two great forces. And yes, it is rather melodramatic. * Hardy at lasts then returns to his Fated theme with the phrase â€Å"The Spinner of the Years†. Reminiscent of the Classical Greek Moirai or the Roman Parcae (three old hags who would run, spin and cut the threads of life), Hardy refers to the middle of the three – the Spinner. Spinning a mortal thread has always occupied a position in mythology. Hardy utilises it to draw out a sense of fate. Fate itself conducts the affair, it seems, given that the Twain act upon the word â€Å"Now!† to converge. * Emerson Brown, scholar of medieval literature, pointed out that the poem is 33 lines long, whilst line 33 echoes the 33-year-old Christ’s last words: â€Å"consummatum est.† In any case, when â€Å"consummation comes†, Thomas Hardy sends 1,500 souls to the bottom with an obscene pun. To â€Å"come† has borne a sexual connotation since the 17th century, at least, while consummation traditionally means the fulfilment of the marriage contract by intercourse. The image of the ‘Titanic’ and the iceberg copulating is hard to take seriously – therefore we must question whether Hardy truly intends it. Nevertheless, it advances the idea of the twain existing in a marital bond. Note the sudden use of speech, in the present tense. Very dramatic. Brings the Twain together in Time for the last time!

Sunday, July 21, 2019

A Case Study On Different Anxiety Experiences Nursing Essay

A Case Study On Different Anxiety Experiences Nursing Essay Anxiety experiences different in everyone in different times, its a normal response to actual danger, promoting the body through stimulating of sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous system will be helpful action. (Springhouse, 2007). Anxiety affects our whole being. It affects how we feel, how e behave and has very real physical symptoms. It feels a bit like fear but whereas we know what we are frightened of, we often dont know what we are anxious about. Mild anxiety is vague and unsetting-severe anxiety can be extremely debilitating (Medical News Today, 2010). Acute pain it is not good sign about tissue damage, (Gulanick et al., 2010). 1- How can you manage Everts pain? As a nurse, the following can be done to manage Everts pain: Anticipate need for pain relief: early analgesic intervention helps to decrease pain. We have to respond to pain complain as soon as possible: early respond to patients complaining of pain its help to decrease anxiety and on other side its help to make a trust relationship. Trying to eliminate the addition of stressor or comfort as we can: help patient to tolerate the pain either these elements from environment, intrapersonal, or intrapschic factors. Make an good atmosphere of comfort, relaxation, and sleep: we have to help patient to be in good atmosphere to take a rest and sleep comfortably because some patients experiences of pain may will put them in fatigue condition, so we have to put him in darkroom and disconnected his phone (Gulanick et al., 2010). 2- What can you do to alleviate Everts anxiety? The following interventions can be done to alleviate Everts anxiety: Anticipate need for pain relief: early analgesic intervention helps to decrease pain. We have to respond to pain complain as soon as possible: early respond to patients complaining of pain its help to decrease anxiety and on other side its help to make a trust relationship. Some of cognitive behavioral strategies as follows: Images: if patient use his mental images its help to distract stress and pain with using all his five senses. Distraction techniques: heighten ones concentration upon nonpainful stimuli to decrease ones awareness and experiences of pain and reduce stress such as nerve stimulation and breathing modifications. Use the relaxation exercises: its important for patient to decrease attention and pain. Use breathing exercises. Using Music Therapy in treatment: the music therapy works well on patients. Its apart of treatment team (Mount Munro, 1978). 3- Why was Everts wife so worried the Evert did not eat? Should you treat with IV nourishment? Everts wife was worried because Evert might suffer from dehydration and malnutrition, and this will cause electrolyte imbalances and his condition will be aggravated by this, his health will deteriorate more rapidly. As a nurse the treatment plans for Evert to restoring fluid and correcting any electrolyte imbalances. Early treatment intervention its help to prevent any potentially life threatening such as hypovolemic shock (Gulanick et al., 2010). 4- Make a nursing care plan for Evert. Explain and motivate you suggested nursing intervention in according with the four key areas listed in the introduction? A. Assessment: defining characterized: Evert verbalizes pain, especially in connection with moving, narrowed focus such as withdrawal from social and physical contact, relief or distraction behavior( seeking out staff to do activities), restless, anxiety manifested, expression of helplessness, and inability to procure fluid and food. B. Nursing Diagnosis: actual diagnosis: acute pain related to severe anxiety. Nursing outcome: Evert will be enable adequate relief of pain when moving or ability to deal with the pain are not fully satisfied. Evert is able to recognize signs of anxiety. Risk diagnosis: risk for fluid volume deficit related to inability to procure fluid and food. Nursing outcome: sufficient fluids volume and electrolyte balance as evidence by urine output grater than 30ml/hr, consistency of weight, and normal skin turgor (Gulanick et al., 2010). C. Nursing Intervention: 1. Assess pain characteristics: Quality as example sharp, burning, and shooting. If we want to measure the level of severity from 1 to 10, with 10 level it is more sever to patient. Location according to anatomical description, onset if its gradual or sudden. Duration for how long is it intermittent or continuous (Gulanick et al., 2010). 2. Administer parenteral fluids as ordered: the nurse must give patient IV fluids as needed and as ordered, challenge with intermediate infusion of fluids for Evert who is unable to procure fluid and food (Gulanick et al., 2010). 3. Assess patients and help them to recognize the sign and symptoms of anxiety: it is important for patients to be able to know and recognize the sign and symptoms of anxiety, which will help Evert to be able to solve his sign and symptoms when anxiety level is low (Gulanick et al., 2010). 4. Relieving factors. Monitor the patient signs and symptoms with pain: Like Heart Rate, Temperature, Blood Pressure, skin color, restlessness, and patient inability to focus. Some patients ignoring sign and symptoms of pain when occur. The patients must inform the nurse about these sign and symptoms because it well helps the nurses in evaluation (Gulanick et al., 2010). 5. Assessing the main causes of pain: it is important for doctors and nurses to look to the causes of pain because the different causes having different treatments (Gulanick et al., 2010). 6. Assess the patient knowledge regarding pain relief strategies: a lot of patients may not realize how effective non drug method on them either with or without pain killing medication. So, we have to explain to them this point carefully (Gulanick et al., 2010). 7. Evaluate patients regarding response to pain medications or therapeutics: it is important to give patients chance to tell nurse about his expression regarding pain medication, and also let him to talk about effect of medication on him (Gulanick et al., 2010). 8. Assess patients from cultural, intrapersonal, intrapsychic, and environmental degree factors which are share to relief pain: these factors will affect patients expression on experiences, for example some cultural you have complete freedom to express how you fell (Gulanick et al., 2010). 9. Evaluate what is the meaning of pain to individuals: it is important to all patients to know the meaning of pain because if he doesnt know it will affect him to response (Gulanick et al., 2010). 10. Assess patients regarding expectation of pain relief: it is important for nurses to know patients expectations regarding pain relief either the pain decreased or pain disappeared. Because these patient expectation will help the nurse to know either the pain relief or need to participate in another treatment (Gulanick et al., 2010). 11. Assess patients if they would like to explore some other techniques to control pain: it is important to patient to know that there is many ways of pain relief (Gulanick et al., 2010). D. Evaluation: Evert manifests adequate relief of pain, recognizes sings of anxiety, and demonstrates positive coping mechanism. Everts urine output greater than 30ml/hr, weight is consistent and with normal skin turgor (Gulanick et al., 2010). FOUR MAJOR AREAS: Symptoms Control: A palliative approach, involving attention to symptoms control and the psychological, social and spiritual wellbeing of the patient and their family is relevant at all stages of the disease, and it has been argued that attention to these aspects combined with understanding of the patients feelings and concerns all contribute to improving quality of life of the person with acute pain (Montazeri et al., 1998). The principles of symptom control, which are used as standard by clinicians include: assessment of the symptom, understanding the meaning ascribed to it by the patient, explanation of the likely cause, investigation should only be undertaken if they will change the course of action to be followed, institution of treatment based on known or likely etiology, available options for treatment, and wishes of the patient, monitoring of the response to treatment and modification as necessary ( Steinhauser et al., 2000). Communication: make a good relationship between nurse and patient which well make patient comfortable in communication. Trying to orient the patient to the environment and help him to take experiences from people as needed, and also when the patient is aware and oriented very well it will help him to be comfort and may will decrease anxiety. Help the patient to express anxious felling if the patient has ability to describe them. (Gulanick, 2010). Teamwork: during assessment pain in patient, contributions from the multidisciplinary team is very important to evaluate the following: a detailed history of each pain, full examination, and psychosocial assessment, a history of analgesics already used and the response to them, investigations to confirm the diagnosis, depending on the stage of disease and the treatment options (Ripamonte et al., 1997). Perception of pain will be influenced by the meaning of pain for the patient. Open discussion among team members, family and patient, allowing fears to be discussed, providing explanation of the symptoms and reassurance of continued support is important (Twycross, R. G, 1993). Family: the nurse must teach patient and his/her family about intervention regarding inadequate intake, and explain to him the importance of intake such as drinking fluids and eating food. Explanation of the importance of the rationale and intended effect of treatment program to alleviate pain, diminish anxieties (Gulanick et al., 2010).

Saturday, July 20, 2019

Dyslexia Essay -- Biology Essays Research Papers

Dyslexia Choosing a topic for my research project was quite easy. Dyslexia naturally presented itself, probably because I have a mild case myself. I thought of it as a good omen when typing the word â€Å"dyslexia† into an internet search engine, I spelled it â€Å"dsylexia†. Of course I was troubled when the computer reported zero matches, but I caught my mistake, and tried again, this time more successfully. My dyslexia is really very minor, and has not presented too much difficulty for me. I often reverse numbers, which is annoying when dealing with phone numbers, and I am a terrible speller, which may well be related to my dyslexia. However, people with severe cases are presented with a serious handicap, making reading, writing, listening and language comprehension difficult (1,2). Despite normal intelligence levels, dyslexics often feel stupid and have self-esteem problems, because of the difficulty they experience in reading and writing (1). Dyslexia was first described in 1896 by Pringle Morgan of Sussex, England, who described a 14 year old boy who â€Å"has always been a bright and intelligent boy, quick at games, and in no way inferior to others of his age. His great difficulty has been--and is now--his inability to learn to read.†(5) This was the first description of the disorder, which exposes the curious problem of intelligent, motivated people unable to learn basic reading skills. Dyslexia’s most diagnosable feature is a pronounced disparity between intelligence and scholastic success, particularly reading. Reading involves rapid association of symbols (letters and letter combinations) with the 44 phonemes ( the smallest unit of discernible sound) of the English language, which must in turn be assembled into... ... 1) http://www.dyslexiao From Dyslexia Online 2) http://www. From Orton Dyslexia Society 3) http://www From Learning Disabilities Online 4) http://www.ldonline.o rg/ccld/ld/ldresearch.html From Learning Disabilities Online 5) /1196issue/1196shaywitz.html From Scientific American Dyslexia article 6) From an advocate site 7) http :// From a review of an article published in Nature 8)!!ucy831YlLucy831YlL/pubs/mmanual/html/iomhgeeg.htm From the Merck Manual 9) articles.stm#content From the International Dyslexia Association Dyslexia Essay -- Biology Essays Research Papers Dyslexia Choosing a topic for my research project was quite easy. Dyslexia naturally presented itself, probably because I have a mild case myself. I thought of it as a good omen when typing the word â€Å"dyslexia† into an internet search engine, I spelled it â€Å"dsylexia†. Of course I was troubled when the computer reported zero matches, but I caught my mistake, and tried again, this time more successfully. My dyslexia is really very minor, and has not presented too much difficulty for me. I often reverse numbers, which is annoying when dealing with phone numbers, and I am a terrible speller, which may well be related to my dyslexia. However, people with severe cases are presented with a serious handicap, making reading, writing, listening and language comprehension difficult (1,2). Despite normal intelligence levels, dyslexics often feel stupid and have self-esteem problems, because of the difficulty they experience in reading and writing (1). Dyslexia was first described in 1896 by Pringle Morgan of Sussex, England, who described a 14 year old boy who â€Å"has always been a bright and intelligent boy, quick at games, and in no way inferior to others of his age. His great difficulty has been--and is now--his inability to learn to read.†(5) This was the first description of the disorder, which exposes the curious problem of intelligent, motivated people unable to learn basic reading skills. Dyslexia’s most diagnosable feature is a pronounced disparity between intelligence and scholastic success, particularly reading. Reading involves rapid association of symbols (letters and letter combinations) with the 44 phonemes ( the smallest unit of discernible sound) of the English language, which must in turn be assembled into... ... 1) http://www.dyslexiao From Dyslexia Online 2) http://www. From Orton Dyslexia Society 3) http://www From Learning Disabilities Online 4) http://www.ldonline.o rg/ccld/ld/ldresearch.html From Learning Disabilities Online 5) /1196issue/1196shaywitz.html From Scientific American Dyslexia article 6) From an advocate site 7) http :// From a review of an article published in Nature 8)!!ucy831YlLucy831YlL/pubs/mmanual/html/iomhgeeg.htm From the Merck Manual 9) articles.stm#content From the International Dyslexia Association

The Role of Women in America Essay -- Womens Studies

The Role of Women in America In her essay, â€Å"Housewives and Homework: The Lacemakers of Narsapur,† Chandra Talpade Mohanty focused on how men sold products that women produced and profited from women’s work. The essay basically pointed out how work can be defined according to sexual identity. It made me wonder if American women are still perceived by men in society as being housewives even though some of us are doctors, lawyers, teachers etc. Is the work that women do seen as what Mohanty pointed out in her essay as â€Å"leisure time activities†? I think that to some extent men believe that women’s sole purpose on Earth is to be their wives/partners and to be good mothers to their children. Even though we â€Å"leisurely,† as Mohanty so plainly categorized our work according to men in India, go out to our different careers or occupations everyday, we are not truly seen as providers or given credit for being part providers for the family. Some men may feel that we pu t forth more of an effort in being a woman who cleans the house, cooks, and takes care of the children. Maybe our â€Å"le...

Friday, July 19, 2019

Appearance: What You See Is Not Always What You Get Essay -- Literary

Thomas Pain once said â€Å"[a] long habit of not thinking a thing wrong gives it a superficial appearance of being right.† Appearances are the first thing to catch one’s attention. Whether it be a supermodel, a famous photograph, or the unmistakable golden arches: we take notice. The essays written by Judith Ortiz Cofer, Eric Schlosser, and Nora Ephron demonstrate the effect appearances have on individuals and our society undividedly. In Judith Ortiz Cofer's essay "The Story of My Body," she shares her struggle with appearance and self-esteem. Ms. Cofer admits her definitions of appearance changed when she relocated to the United States at age eight. She states "I was born a white girl in Puerto Rico, but became a brown girl when I came to live in the United States" (Cofer 323). For instance, Cofer is identified as a palm blanca in Puerto Rico and as a colored girl during her first encounter of color prejudice. In addition to her cultural dispute with appearance, Ms. Cofer displays an internal dispute with her appearance in size. At age twelve standing five-feet tall, Ms. Cofer was viewed by her family as a tall young woman in comparison to her mother who was no taller than four-foot-eleven. Her mother exemplified this by saying â€Å"†[s]ince you are so tall, this dress will look good on you†" (Cofer 326). Her classmates at her New Jersey public school viewed her appearance very differently. Ms. Co fer was perceived as the "4F, skinny, short, bespectacled" (Cofer 326) kid on the playground impervious to competition; whereas her true competition lay in the classroom. Appearance is what creates an initial attraction to one’s significant other; for example, Cofer describes her first crush, Ted, whom she describes as "pretty with yellow ... ... photographic coverage of events must be published regardless of the subject, simply because the events took place. The author states " That's why photojournalism is often more powerful than written journalism" (Ephron 438), emphasizing that censorship harms the purity of death and that interpretation and judgment must be left to the reader. Ms. Ephron establishes, appearances are memorable and powerful. Society’s views always fluctuate, as they are allowed, and censorship is a major threat the right to form our own opinions. An initial reaction can be everlasting. This is why it is believed that appearance and first impressions are most important. Although, understanding what we see versus what we get is vital. It is imperative to venture past first appearances and impressions; sometimes there lies honesty or deceit. Appearances are not always what they seem.

Thursday, July 18, 2019

Communication and professional relationships

Explain how you use effective communication in developing positive relationships with children, young people and adults. Why is this important? 1. 1 In developing positive relationships we use effective communication in several ways. We use it to: help us better understand a situation or person which can help to determine our approach when engaging with them. build trust and respect. If individuals feel comfortable speaking with us and feel they can approach us at any time on any subject, they are more likely to co-operate and look favourably on any suggestions made. show that we care about the welfare and future of an individual and will do our best to aid in their success ensure that all parties are agreed upon the same goal, making sure that everyone is clear about the final aim and how it will be achieved. build and maintain a positive working environment where creativity and learning can flourish. It is important to do this because poor communication can lead to misunderstanding s, lack of trust and conflict. Without a positive relationship you are unlikely to gain support and co-operation and find it challenging to achieve a good outcome from any situation.Explain the principles of relationship building with children, young people and adults 1. 2 When trying to develop positive relationships there are several principles to follow. Firstly effective communication is essential. You must be clear in what you say and ensure you have been understood correctly. At the end of a communication you can reiterate your key points and if necessary outline responsibilities and actions. Also be sure to use language appropriate to the person with whom you are communicating.When speaking with young children keep key points to a minimum and ask them to repeat what you have said. Secondly, take time to listen to others and try to understand their point of view. Use active listening techniques to show that you are interested in what they are saying and respond appropriately. Also make sure that, if you tell someone you will get back to them, you do get back to them. This will help engender a sense of trust and respect. It is also essential that you show respect for the person with whom you are communicating.Remember their name and details of how they like to be addressed and issues which are personal to them. Recalling details of their lives adds to the feeling that you are genuinely interested in hem and their welfare. When communicating be sure to acknowledge the individual. Accommodate any religious and cultural beliefs and show that you value these differences. Be considerate of the person's situation trying to understand and accommodate any issues which may influence their feelings, actions and responses.Finally, remain positive and retain a sense of humour. Laughter is a good way to break the ice and relieve tension in a stressful situation. relationships and the way people communicate 1. 3 There are several ways in which social, professional and cultural contexts may affect our relationships and the way we communicate. We must remember that communication is not Just verbal and context will influence the way we act, what we wear, how we communicate and what we say. In a social setting our actions, language and dress may be less formal.If we have colleagues and parents from school as friends outside of school, then we might perhaps greet them with a hug and a wave. Our language might incorporate slang and Jokes and conversation might be more generic and less serious. We might be more casual in our attire and the situation would suggest whether this is acceptable. For example, you would not be expected to attend a party wearing your best suit. The manner in which we communicate socially is also likely to be different from a professional setting.As well as telephone and face to face conversations we might also engage via text message, email and social media sites and we would be unlikely to write a letter to someone we might se e daily. Communications might, for example, utilise text speak and Jargon and not necessarily demand an immediate response if any at all. In a professional context you would be expected to act, speak and dress more formally. Your actions language and clothing should match the severity of the issue which you will address nd show appropriate respect for the location and people with whom you are meeting.If participating in a parent/ teacher meeting at school for example the same people you greeted with a hug the night before would be better greeted with perhaps a handshake to highlight the position you hold in this scenario. Our language would be more formal and depending who was present we might try to eliminate Jargon to ensure clarity and minimise misunderstandings. Similarly again our clothing would be more formal to identify the position we hold and show respect for those involved in any meeting.When contacting people professionally the use of ocial media sites would not be approp riate to discuss any matters relating to school, pupils or staff. Text messages might be appropriate to inform parents/carers of a school social event for example but to arrange a meeting or discuss an important matter it would be more appropriate to speak with a parent/carer or write a letter if the contact needs to be documented. When working with outside agencies email, for ease of use and speed, has become the standard form of communication but again when broaching a sensitive or important issue, a phone call or face to face meeting might be preferred.Emails can easily be misread which can lead to misunderstanding and conflict. When speaking we can use tone of voice to help ensure a point is understood correctly and face to face we can use body language in the same way. The timeframe in which we contact someone or reply to a communication can also affect relationships. When someone has taken the time to contact you they will expect a response to show that you value their contact and it should be made in the same manner or more personally. Responding to a phone call with an email, for example, could be seen as rude and deter future contact.Similarly, elaying a response could suggest that you do not value the input of the individual or consider them or their issue to be important and bring about the same result. Different cultures may also have different standards in terms of behaviour, dress, communication and contact. Actions could be misinterpreted and cause offence leading to the breakdown of a relationship. If you are meeting with someone from a different culture it may be worth doing some research and asking their preferred form of contact etc. to show that you value their beliefs.However, whilst it may be detrimental not to account for cultural differences you could see the same onsequences if you assume differences because of background or race when actually there are none. What skills do you need to communicate with children and young people 2. 1 Co mmunication is still a relatively new thing for children and young people and they may not be used to asking questions and holding conversations. One skill required to communicate effectively is giving children and young people opportunities to speak.As adults we are inclined to think that we know what children are thinking and feeling and try to tell them this or fill the gaps in their speech. Whilst we should ontinue to try and communicate with children as often as possible we should ensure it is a two-way conversation and not a one-way stream of instructions. We should remain patient and allow children time to organise their thoughts and formulate their sentences. When a child is relaxed and at ease they will be more forthcoming.Children may be shy and reluctant to say more than a few words if they feel you are not interested in what they have to say. Using positive body language we can encourage children to speak out. We should come down to the child's level, face them and maint ain eye contact. Remaining focussed on the child rather than ontinuing with another task will confirm your interest and appropriate facial expressions will show that you are listening and have understood what they are saying. Active listening is another key skill.Be interested and make appropriate responses whilst the child is speaking to confirm that you are really listening. Add to this by repeating back what the child has said to ensure your understanding is correct and by giving positive comments when they have finished. Asking open questions will extend the conversation giving the child more practice, boost the child's confidence so they are encouraged to communicate more and model a real onversation for them to learn from. Finally, we must also ensure that communication is appropriate for the child or young person and be able to adapt the style we use.Depending on the age and ability of the child we may be able to simply converse or might need to incorporate visual support or play into the communication. We should not assume children and young people will not understand but instead make our communication clear, use vocabulary which is appropriate to their age and encourage questioning. Give a detailed explanation of how you adapt communication with children and young people for: 2. a The age of the When communicating with younger children you should try choose a setting which is familiar to the child and where they are more confident – their favourite area of the classroom for example.Get down to the level of the child perhaps sitting on the carpet and use body language to make them feel more comfortable – ensure you are facing the child, smile, nod, turn toward them, keep your arms open and remove any barriers between you. Younger children will require more reassurance and perhaps more physical contact. They may feel more confident holding your hand or sitting close together. Vocabulary should be kept simple and sentences short, broken dow n into easy steps. The same point may need to be repeated several times in different ways and it is helpful to provide examples based around their own experiences.If a child is very reluctant to communicate you may want to use puppets to speak through, include pictures or props to help them engage or perhaps incorporate your communication into a favourite game. The attention span of younger children is very short and you must also account for this. Monitor the length of time you spend together and include attention switches to maintain their interest: change your ethod of communication, switch speakers, move location, ask questions etc. Older children and young people will still need to feel comfortable in your company but are more independent and will require less reassurance and physical contact.They are more familiar with the school environment so will find it easier communicate in different settings but will more comfortable in a setting they have used before. Older children oft en view themselves as grown up and will appreciate being treated accordingly. Positive body language will still be beneficial in encouraging a child to peak but it will no longer be necessary to sit on the floor. Language and vocabulary should be more mature and sentences can be more complex. It may also not be necessary to repeat a point so often unless it is something new and above that person's ability level.Examples can be drawn from a variety of sources as their experiences are wider and additional materials should be more sophisticated such as written texts or â€Å"you tube† clips. Older children are more aware of themselves and can be easily embarrassed. They will benefit from confidence boosting reminders of how well they are progressing and positive re-enforcement. They will, however, withdraw and react negatively if patronised, preferring to be treated with respect and spoken to honestly. With age attention span also increases so it is still necessary to include at tention switches to maintain focus but not as frequently. the context of the communication We will encounter children in a variety of situations at school and it will be necessary to adapt our communication accordingly. Primarily our contact will be made inside school during a learning activity. In this case we need to remain quite formal, be directive and model the behaviour we require through our own actions. Ground rules should be laid down in clear, concise Instructions and the learning objectives highlighted to ensure all children fully understand what we expect and are trying to achieve from the lesson.There will be other children in the same area working on of our group but not distract the others. We can do this through tone of voice, choice of vocabulary and supplementary resources but must be wary not to overexcite the group because of the other learners present. If your activity is away from other learners then it may be possible to incorporate physical activity and allow greater expression. Distractions will be plentiful and we will need to encourage and focus our learners through positive re-enforcement and challenges.If appropriate to the task we should encourage discussion through questioning but keep discussion restricted to the subject at hand. In a more social setting, for example the playground, we can be less formal and more relaxed in our approach. This would be reflected in our body language, tone of voice and vocabulary. These times can be used as opportunities to build relationships and get to know the children better. Children can be encouraged to discuss outside nterests and we might share our own experiences to help form a bond.Whilst it may be necessary to give little reminders of school rules to avoid bad behaviour it should not be necessary to outline them in full and they can be made in a more playful and conspiratorial manner – a helpful friend rather than a fgure of authority. Although conversation might be more light he arted we must still remember to maintain the relationship of teacher and pupil. A school trip, however, is a more social event, but still a learning activity and the degree of formality should remain on a similar level to the classroom.The formality f the pupil teacher relationship should remain so the children understand that you â€Å"are in charge†. Children will need to be reminded often of their objectives but communication might be more light hearted and children allowed to speak more freely, discussing outside interests highlighted by the current situation. Outside the school environment they will be excited and more forgetful of their code of conduct. It will not always be possible to speak with the whole group when on a trip so we should communicate through our own behaviour, modelling what we expect from the children: remaining focussed, respectful, and responsible.