Tuesday, December 24, 2019

Essay on Fredrick Douglas - 730 Words

Fredrick Douglas Imagine yourself at the mercy of another human being. You are dependent upon this person for food and shelter. This person controls your life in every way possible. You are told when to wake up, what to do, how to do it and when to stop doing it. If you do not cooperate you will be beaten severely and possibly killed. Imagine a society of people that live like this! How would human character be affected by this power? How would religion be influenced by this institution? How would family life be affected by these activities? I will attempt to answer these three questions in the following essay. Fredrick Douglas was born in Maryland, he does not know the date of his birth, as did most slaves. He never†¦show more content†¦The institution of slavery gave these men a good reason. That is an extreme of slavery can cause. Most slave-owners were not so brutal, but they were not distant from the behavior. They had to become fairly evil to keep the slaves in line. Bruta lity had to take the place of consent in slaves and without limitations man was bound to exercise the power. Slavery not only affected the male slave owners but the women also. Mrs. Auld wasnt raised with slaves, She has been in a good degree preserved from the blighting and dehumanizing effects of slavery. (Page 46) When she first married into the family she began to teach Fredrick the ABCs. Soon after, Mr. Auld found out and put a stop to it. To his belief it was unsafe to teach slaves to read. Before long Mrs. Auld changed, The fatal Poison of irresponsible power was already in her hands, and soon commenced its infernal work. (Page 46) Religion teaches us to be kind to one another, perhaps to make us more humane. But Douglas found religion to have the opposite effect on slaveholders. They, found religious sanction and support, (page 65) for the cruelty they showed their slaves. I could not believe that religion could or would support slavery. Didnt they know God sees no c olor? This could only come from men who preached liberty and practiced slavery. The fear of losing slaves must have been so great a burden on their minds they would look forShow MoreRelatedEssay on Fredrick Douglas1115 Words   |  5 PagesFredrick Dougalas Is it possible for one of our times, living in the free United States, to be bonded in the institution of slavery? One hundred and fifty years have past now since slavery was abolished. The institution of slavery kept the deprivation of women legal and the learning of the mind illegal. Among the slaves, there could be no men, or else that slave would not be a slave. Frederick Douglas existed among slavery only to later on escape and gain his freedom from those who oppressedRead MoreThe Life Of Frederick Douglas, By Fredrick Douglas1601 Words   |  7 PagesDuring the enslavement of Fredrick Douglas, he began to educate himself in the field of language and writing. Quickly this became a burden as well as a blessing, as Fredrick had to duck and hide at every turn to ensure that no one who could be a threat to his being found out that he possessed the ability to read. As Fredrick slowly grows with each piece of new material he can acquire, it becomes more evident that Fredrick has also consecutively began to become depressed. Though gifted with the abilityRead MoreThe Enormity Of Slavery By Fredrick Douglas859 Words   |  4 PagesThe Enormity of Slavery â€Å"Slavery is the great test question of our age and nation. It, above all others, enables us to draw the line between the precious and the vile, whether in individuals, creeds, sects, or parties†, as stated by Fredrick Douglas in the mid 1850s. Slavery can be stated as a civil relationship in which one person has absolute power over the life, fortune, and liberty of another. The term slavery emerged during the early 1620s when the first known Africans were dropped off by aRead MoreFredrick Douglas and Harriet Jacobs1757 Words   |  8 Pageson to the immorality and injustice of slavery on black people. Another problem slave owners had with literate slaves was the potential for them to educate other slaves and give them thoughts of escaping or helping other slaves escape. Frederick Douglas and Harriet Jacobs both wrote of this in their books. Douglass was separated from his mother at an early age in order to prevent any feelings of attachment to her. His father was a white man, he might have been the man responsible for separatingRead MoreFredrick Douglas : The Inhumane Institution Of Slavery1179 Words   |  5 PagesFredrick Douglas: The Inhumane Institution of Slavery The definition of a slave in Merriam-Webster dictionary is â€Å"someone who is legally owned by another person and is forced to work for that person without pay.† Fredrick Douglas would narrate his encounters of slavery by depicting a mental image of what slavery was through his eyes. In his autobiography, Douglas refers to the whippings slaves were treated to, if they did not obey the strict restrictions set by their masters. Douglas accidentlyRead MoreA Narrative Of The Life Of Fredrick Douglas, An American Slave1747 Words   |  7 PagesFreedom, According to Douglas During the nineteenth century, slavery widely accepted in the United States. Although the freedoms of â€Å"all men† were supposedly given in America by the Declaration of Independence, these rights did not expand to blacks who were free or under the confines of slavery. At the time, it was illegal for colored people to learn to read and for anyone to teach them. Because of this, very few people who were enslaved could read or write. Fredrick Douglas, who was born a slaveRead MoreFredrick Douglas : A Man Who Escaped From Slavery1611 Words   |  7 PagesFredrick Douglas is a man who escaped from slavery in Maryland at age 21. He was born 1817 and was a slave since he was a young boy. Fredric Douglas died in 1895 but his story is nonetheless invigorating. While in slavery, Fredrick managed to educate himself. He learned to read and write by any means possible. He became enlightened on how his and the other slaves lifestyle is something that is unjust. He then started spea king on his experiences as a slave at age 24. He was hired to lecture for theRead MoreNarrative of Fredrick Douglas Essay1058 Words   |  5 Pagesslaves, leaving physical and physiological trauma on both the slave and the slaveholder. The relationship of the master and the slave is criticized and questioned continually as it is both wrong and unjust in society. The Narrative of the Life of Fredrick Douglass, an American Slave optimizes this accurately; documenting the distressing treatment inflicted upon the slaves by their owners. Douglass also illustrates the slaveholder exploiting their powers and its detrimental effects on the slaveholderRead MoreNarrative Of The Life Of Fredrick Douglas, American Slave2104 Words   |  9 PagesNarrative of the Life of Fredrick Douglas, and American Slave I. Conflicts A. Internal Conflict 1. The lack of identity always troubled Douglas. At the time, he had no knowledge of his age or his father because he has not seen his records. 2. Quote: â€Å"A want for information concerning my own was a source of unhappiness to me even during childhood. The white children could tell their ages. I could not tell why I ought to be deprived of the same privilege.† (17) B. External Conflict 1. The struggleRead MoreEssay about Fredrick Douglas And Harriet Jacobs1717 Words   |  7 Pageson to the immorality and injustice of slavery on black people. Another problem slave owners had with literate slaves was the potential for them to educate other slaves and give them thoughts of escaping or helping other slaves escape. Frederick Douglas and Harriet Jacobs both wrote of this in their books. Douglass was separated from his mother at an early age in order to prevent any feelings of attachment to her. His father was a white man, he might have been the man responsible for separating

Monday, December 16, 2019

Silk Road Tea Free Essays

The Silk Road was a series of historical trade routes that connected cultures of European and Asian countries. Hidden in Southwest China is a lesser-known trade route called Chamadao, literally translated as the Tea Horse Road, was a central trade route for the exchange of Tibetan horses and Chinese tea (Elaine). The route started in Southwest China, where tea was produced, led north into the Tibetan mountains and into India (Yang). We will write a custom essay sample on Silk Road: Tea or any similar topic only for you Order Now Due to its economic and cultural impact, it has been dubbed the â€Å"Southern Silk Road of China† (Yang). Tea first originated from Yunnan, through China, to the rest of Asia, then to the West. In its earliest uses, tea was first used as food then concocted as medicinal brews. As more traditional tea drinking practices developed overtime. It began transmit to social hierarchy and developed status (Heiss 4,7). The origin of tea trade could be traced back to the Tang Dynasty. During the Tang dynasty, Emperor Dezong sent his supervisory official Chang Lu to visit Tibet. Chang Lu offered some boiled tea to the Tibetan king, who then asked what it was. When Chang answered, the king informed him that Tibet already had tea and had his servants show it to Chang (Yang). The Chinese were the main exporters of tea. The Tea Horse Road, or Chamadao, was a central trade route for exchanging Tibetan horses and Chinese tea. Though it is called the Tea Horse Road, other products such as salt, sugar and furs were also exchanged along this route. The increasing importance of tea in daily life led to high demand and set up many markets outside of Southern China (Whitfield 238). Tea trade further expanded after Europeans were introduced to it. Chinese Tea was traded as far as Kenya, Africa. Chamadao soon earned the title of â€Å"Southern Silk Road of China,† due to its importance in both economic and cultural aspects (Elaine). Tea played a great role in religion and politics. At the height of the tea trade’s prosperity during the Ming Dynasty, a bureau was established to manage the horse and tea trade. During that time, the Ming Court often used the tea trade as a means of maintaining political control over Tibetan leaders and lamas. Farmers paid tea as tribute, or tax to the emperor, or ruler. The tea used in such tributes determined its quality (Yang). Tea was embraced by China’s three great religions—Buddhism, Confucianism and Daoism for its perceived healthful virtues and powers of rejuvenation . The holy leaders of these religions deemed the drink as a necessity and should be consumed by all practitioners. As each of these faiths spread, so did the practice of consuming tea (Heiss 10). In short, the lesser-known Tea Horse Road had great economic and cultural impact. Its cultural exchange and prosperity is comparable to the Silk Road in historical importance. This â€Å"Southern Silk Road† is no longer in use but its legacy continues to play a crucial role in the communication and exchange of present cultures. How to cite Silk Road: Tea, Papers

Sunday, December 8, 2019

Marijuana Reform Essay Example For Students

Marijuana Reform Essay According to government figures, nearly 70 million Americans have smokedmarijuana at some time in their lives. 18 million have smoked marijuana within the lastyear, and ten million are regular smokers. Almost all of the people arrested for marijuanaare arrested for possession. And because of harsh federal and state penalties, these peoplemay be sentenced to lengthy jail terms. This is an abuse of drug laws in a great nation. Themarijuana laws need to be reformed, and the war against marijuana rethought. One reason these laws need to be rethought is for medicinal purposes. Most peoplethink marijuana is a dangerous drug that can kill. This is true if taken in heavy doses butthats also true for aspirin, alcohol and ibuprofen, which are all largely legal. Doctors havediscovered that under controlled and medical supervision, marijuana has is one of the safesttherapeutically active substances known to man says Dr. Grinspoon, at the University ofFlorida. This is just one reason why it should be allowed for medical purposes. Marijuanahas been proven to help cancer patients recover from the results of chemotherapy. Sometimes these results of chemo are so great that cancer patients cant continue with theprocedure and walk away from it. Marijuana has also been used successfully to help people with anorexia. It has given these people appetites and in some cases almostcompletely cured them. And another medical use for it is glaucoma. Marijuana has beenknown to help glaucoma sufferers greatly and to enhance their lives. Although marijuanahas all these positive qualities that dont seem to have bad side effects, federal law allowsphysicians to prescribe far more dangerous drugs to patients. And yet refuses marijuana into themedical field. Another reason to reform the marijuana laws is to help our country socially and economically. America spent 20 billion dollars on the anti-drug budget last year, and thegovernments own research says that drugs, including marijuana, are more cheap, pure and available than before. This large amount of money that comes out of taxpayers pocketscould be used for more usef ul things like schools, roads, and cancer research. Over half amillion people in our nations jails are in there on drug charges, 53% being charged formarijuana possession. These overcrowded jails could be holding much more seriouscriminals. It takes 23,000 dollars to hold each prisoner in jail for one year, which is alsovery costly to America. Marijuana offenders can loose their drivers license, their occupationallicenses, loss of child custody, loss of federal benefits and even face removal from publichousing. They can even lose their cars, cash, boats, land, and houses. Another reason for marijuana reform is because the laws dont work. Theprohibition against marijuana hasnt stopped marijuana use by teens, or anyone else. Research has been done on high school seniors in decriminalized states compared to stateswith marijuana penalties since the mid 1970s. These studies show that decriminalizationhas had virtually no effect on marijuana use. Another thing to think about is: Why is thiscountry trying to end marijuana use when studies show that the prohibition is bringingcrime with it? If laws were reformed, the black market would disappear and manymarijuana dealers would surface overnight. International studies also indicate that ifmarijuana laws were to be removed crime actually declines instead of increasing. Anotherthing is that casualties from marijuana are very rare. In fact, deaths from all illegal drugs isless then 20,000 annually. Compared to 450,000 people who die from alcohol andtobacco, this is a tiny number. Should alcohol and tobacco be prohibited? Of course not,that would bring utter chaos. The Netherlands are a living model to solve the marijuanaproblem America today. Since 1976 marijuana possession has been allowed by thegovernment of the Netherlands. Investigations show that marijuana use or crime relatingto marijuana hasnt gone up. Who is to question that the same wouldnt happen here?Overall, the marijuana laws need to be rethought and the fight opposing marijuananeeds to end. There are many important reasons that for this, including the medicinal usefor marijuana, improving crime rates, and superior budget spending for the country. Also, illegal drug use would go down and the policemen and law enforcers could spend moretime on serious criminals. The nations jails would be much less crowded and money on theprisoners could be used elsewhere. Its not crazy to think that if America followed theNetherlands and other countries footsteps, our country would be a better place. .ua94e1fe65c8e71243f4068a84d953dcc , .ua94e1fe65c8e71243f4068a84d953dcc .postImageUrl , .ua94e1fe65c8e71243f4068a84d953dcc .centered-text-area { min-height: 80px; position: relative; } .ua94e1fe65c8e71243f4068a84d953dcc , .ua94e1fe65c8e71243f4068a84d953dcc:hover , .ua94e1fe65c8e71243f4068a84d953dcc:visited , .ua94e1fe65c8e71243f4068a84d953dcc:active { border:0!important; } .ua94e1fe65c8e71243f4068a84d953dcc .clearfix:after { content: ""; display: table; clear: both; } .ua94e1fe65c8e71243f4068a84d953dcc { display: block; transition: background-color 250ms; webkit-transition: background-color 250ms; width: 100%; opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; background-color: #95A5A6; } .ua94e1fe65c8e71243f4068a84d953dcc:active , .ua94e1fe65c8e71243f4068a84d953dcc:hover { opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; background-color: #2C3E50; } .ua94e1fe65c8e71243f4068a84d953dcc .centered-text-area { width: 100%; position: relative ; } .ua94e1fe65c8e71243f4068a84d953dcc .ctaText { border-bottom: 0 solid #fff; color: #2980B9; font-size: 16px; font-weight: bold; margin: 0; padding: 0; text-decoration: underline; } .ua94e1fe65c8e71243f4068a84d953dcc .postTitle { color: #FFFFFF; font-size: 16px; font-weight: 600; margin: 0; padding: 0; width: 100%; } .ua94e1fe65c8e71243f4068a84d953dcc .ctaButton { background-color: #7F8C8D!important; color: #2980B9; border: none; border-radius: 3px; box-shadow: none; font-size: 14px; font-weight: bold; line-height: 26px; moz-border-radius: 3px; text-align: center; text-decoration: none; text-shadow: none; width: 80px; min-height: 80px; background: url(https://artscolumbia.org/wp-content/plugins/intelly-related-posts/assets/images/simple-arrow.png)no-repeat; position: absolute; right: 0; top: 0; } .ua94e1fe65c8e71243f4068a84d953dcc:hover .ctaButton { background-color: #34495E!important; } .ua94e1fe65c8e71243f4068a84d953dcc .centered-text { display: table; height: 80px; padding-left : 18px; top: 0; } .ua94e1fe65c8e71243f4068a84d953dcc .ua94e1fe65c8e71243f4068a84d953dcc-content { display: table-cell; margin: 0; padding: 0; padding-right: 108px; position: relative; vertical-align: middle; width: 100%; } .ua94e1fe65c8e71243f4068a84d953dcc:after { content: ""; display: block; clear: both; } READ: Rosa Parks EssayWords/ Pages : 734 / 24

Saturday, November 30, 2019

McCarthyism and the Salem Witch Trials Essay Example

McCarthyism and the Salem Witch Trials Paper He gave several speeches in order to get people on his side and raise money. He was doing all these corrupt things just to ensure his spot in the reelection for Senator. McCarthy was an American politician who served as a Republican U. S. Senate r from the state of Wisconsin. He was noted for making claims that there were large numbers of Communists and Soviet spies inside the United States federal government. He would accuse cit sense for being communists to make sure he got reelected. Patrick 1 OF 21 Tamarack Coulter Lily, Madison ) 2. What is McCarthy? Discuss the factors which, contributed Mysticisms is based on a Republican senator John McCarthy, who tried to u uncover government actions. The Senate Subcommittee did not like these actions against them and s rated to hold the McCarthy hearings. McCarthy is the act of exposing actions within the government without pr proper evidence. It is considered a form of treason. It is based on the actions of Wisconsin senator Joseph McCarthy. He stated that the American government was being influenced by communism McCarthy is making false accusations and not having good evidence. The word dates back to the second red scare when people became more afraid of communism. We will write a custom essay sample on McCarthyism and the Salem Witch Trials specifically for you for only $16.38 $13.9/page Order now We will write a custom essay sample on McCarthyism and the Salem Witch Trials specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer We will write a custom essay sample on McCarthyism and the Salem Witch Trials specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer Lily McCarthy is a political tactic accusing people Of entertainment or treason. Joseph McCarthy started the idea in the sass. Gaillardia 3. (Kylie L.. Alex What is the second Red Scare? The second red scare happened after WI. It was also known as McCarthy after its most popular supporter, Senator J. Seep McCarthy. McCarthy leveled charges against the government, the media, academics, poll tactical enemies, and all challengers. He claimed that he had proof of gob. Officials sympathetic ton radar the communist party. McCarthy really had joined anticommunism to enhance his famous car ere. Everyone was n fear of McCarthy including President Eisenhower until he proved he was lie Eng by taking on the Army on TV and humiliating himself in front of millions of viewers in 1954. Dud inning his rein anyone who challenged him was considered to be communist. The second Red scare was an unexpectedly caused by the fall of china and the e soviet atomic bomb in 1949. The Americans put the blame on the government for their use of spies. Senator McCarthy used the House Americana Activities Committee to level charges against the media, the government, academics, political enemies and all challengers. He was NC wan for showing off papers in front of cameras and claiming to have lists of government official sympathetic to the Communist Party, when really that wasnt the case. McCarthy had seized on a anticommunism to enhance his mediocre political career. Anyone against him at this time was c inspired a communist, and anyone looking for communist was suspected of McCarthy (Katie Allyson) The Red Scare began in the latenesss and the early sass. It began b cause a threat from the Communist in the U . S. The Communist where referred as the Reds because of their flag, so thats were the name Red Scare was developed from. When did it happen? (Ray, Will Bryce How long did it last (discuss how/ why it began and how/ why it ended)? The second red scare began in 1947 after WI and ended in 1957. It began because Poe plea were afraid that communists would take over the government. The Armchairs hearings lasted approximately one year and some change. The entire length of McCarthy crazed antiques I sated about 4 years total. Everything started when he accused the Nations prestige as being com monists. Also, when he backlashes the US Army. Everything ended during the trial between the tied States Army versus John McCarthy. Bryce)(Austin S, Lance, Each. ) Discuss the events of HTH car e. Federal employees were questioned and reviewed to determine whether they were 10 Yale enough to the government. McCarthy accused anyone who didnt agree with his view political Ill, which cost many people their jobs and reputations. The House of Americana Activities C omitted investigated allegations of people they thought were in support of Communism m by their actions and were considered traitors in the government. Congress passed the Taffeta tell Laboratories Relations Act over President Traumas veto, which severely y limited the rights of organized labor. Many rights to free speech and other civil rights were rest acted. The Red Scare of 191 9 occurred at a time when the American people felt three attend by the rising tide of Communism in Russia, widespread labor unrest, and the often bizarre forms of Anarchism and Narcissistically that were supported by some recent immigrants fro m Southern and Eastern Europe. The Scare itself was caused by the revelation in April of that year that a militia NT Communist group existed in the United States, and that it was plotting to send mail bombs to a number of prominent figures in the government. The red scare happened after World War II. It IS also know as McCarthy. D ring this time of Cold War everyone was afraid Of communist spys in America. So the governs .NET started looking into peoples past to see if they could be communists of to see if they are pop only communistic. Then they would black list you this is where you are basically excommunicated room America you cant get a job, your nabobs wont talk to you. Everyone thinks your the worst person in the world. But really the belief of a communal system docent make you a bad person its just a way of life. To sum it all up people were being accused and falsely accused of being com monist spys. Once sanders (Whit, Datum What was the Holly/add blacklist? The Hollywood Blacklist started in the 1 sass and stayed throughout the early sasss. Hollywood Blacklist was what Hollywood entertainers were called by the House Committee on activities the questioned their loyalty to their country. They also were questioned on been communists. The Holly. Voodoo Blacklist was the term used for Hollywood entertainment professionals that were questioned by the House Committee on Numerical Activities. The people were under suspicion because the U. S. Government thought the their work was tied to communism (Grace, Wallace Who was affected by it? Screenwriters, erectors, producers, composers, actors and dancers and singers, poets, plan: wrights and writers were all affected by the Hollywood blacklist. ( Sam and Armband ) What were the effects of the list on the industry and on the country as a whole? The effect the list had on the industry is it caused many people to loose their jobs and Ellwood It even caused some people to be put in prison . The list turned a lot of peg e against those high figure even though they were innocent . (ARMBAND) 5. (Danville, Maggie What is fascism? When the government likes to control everything and doesnt want the people to have any rights. It is usually a philosophy, move NT, or regime. Fascism is an authoritarian government that is rightsizing. (Erin, Brooke What role did it play in the Red Scare? When McCarty first started to call out communists and such, the government NT didnt want to think he was wrong. The government believed in something HTH t only one man said and enforced searches for anyone who was a so called communist to McCarty why. McCarthy didnt want anyone to be different, neither did the government. ( Bobbie Victoria Divine Thomas, Hannah ) 6. What is the Cold War? Discuss the causes of it. The cold war was a war that took place in? A military rivalry. The war is between two nations but it is not a fully complete war. It is just short of all out fighting. The US wanted 1 ere trade and the Soviet Union wanted to shield international commerce. It started in Germany. VIC: the cold war is a state of political tension and military rivalry between Nat ones that stops short of falsely war, especially that which existed between the United States and S Viet Union following World War II. The war took place in Germany. Divine: The Cold War was a conflict that happened between the U. S and the Sc Viet Union. This war wasnt a war that was fought with weapons. This war lasted for more that four decades. The main reason of this war was because there was a disagreement between these e two nations. The soviet union signed a nonaggression act with Germany in 1939 that angered he Americans. The U. S refused to extend the formal diplomatic recognition to the new common SST nation. So the U. S went at the soviet union. Thomas: The Cold War was the most important diplomatic and political dispute e that occurred in the second half of the 20th century. It began in 1947 and came to a close in 1 991. The two main enemies were the united States and the Soviet Union, later the USSR. It was to what we would consider a war today. The Cold War got its name because both sides were aft aid to fight directly with one another, thus the name cold war. By out definition, a typical war if a hot war directly fought between 2 countries with guns and actual weapons. The war was ca ± De mainly by fear and dislike between the countries. The US refused to share nuclear secrets v;u the the USSR, which made the USSR very unhappy, and the USSR wanted to spread communism round the world, which made the US very unhappy. These are just a couple reasons that the AR ignited, but they were 2 very big issues, among smaller ones. The Cold War never actually Hal ended physically, it was really just a series of threats between the nations. Bobbie: The Cold War is what people called the relationship between America ND the Soviet Union after World War 2. It lasted from the late 1 9405 to the early 1 9905. It w s not actually a real war, just a political rivalry. Some of the issues involved were trade, capitalism and communism. Eaton Caleb Annie Than n ) What is the Manhattan Projects In 1 938, many people feared that Hitler would build an atomic bomb after word spread that a German USC NTIS had split the uranium atom. Hitters mistakes in the making Of the bomb, was his persecute on of Jewish scientists. This persecution resulted in numerous scientists seeking protection in the United States. One of theses scientists was Albert Einstein. Einstein urged President rankling Roosevelt to develop an atomic bomb bef ore Hitler developed one. Eventually Roosevelt agreed and the United States attempt at building the atomic bomb was codenamed The Manhattan Project. Early in 1939, most of the scientist all over the world was fear of German ice NTIS because they knew the secrets of splitting a uranium bomb. Many scientists escaped the In Uzi persecution of Hitler, and Albert Einstein is one of those who fled the persecution and move to America. Then he wrote a letter for President Roosevelt to urge the progress of making attar ICC bomb, but the President agreed the program slowly until 1941, the American built an Atomic bomb and they codename the project is The Manhattan project In 1 938, a German scientist split the Uranium atom. After he did so, many people feared that Hitler would use this to create an atom bomb. Hitler made crucial mistakes, h over, in the making of the bomb. The most important was his persecution Of the Jewish SC nineties. This encouraged many scientists to move to the United States. One of these scientist sits was Albert Einstein. Einstein went to President Roosevelt and told him that he needed to develop an atomic bomb before Hitler. The Manhattan Project was the codename given to this a tempt at making the atom bomb. Max Amy Beth AS . ) Who were Julius and Ethel Rosenberg? Julius and Ethel Rosenberg are husband and wife who were accused in the sasss for participating in a . Com monist spy ring. They were both also a member of the Communist party LASS. They had many people saying they were guilty but many saying they are not guilty but in the sasss they discover De papers that proved that the Rosenberg were spies for Soviet Communists during the Cool War-Ethel and Julius Rosebuds were executed June 1 9th, 1953. Max Morgan Julius and Ethel Rosenberg were one of the unfortunate couples to be accused of being involved with the communist spy ring in the early 1 asss. They were AC used because the American government believed that they were trying to leek information of the e atomic bomb to the Russians and then it made them more suspicious when they were also me beers of the communist party. ( didnt know how to change colors) A J. Journalists and Ethel Rosenberg were a married couple that was accuse d of stealing the atomic bomb for the soviets by the American government. The reason that the eye were caught though was because the brothering of the Rosenberg testified against the m in order to protect his family. They Rosenberg were later executed because they did not state their political views on the stand. Austin T Dairy Matt W Nikkei ) Who is J. Edgar Hoover? What role did he play in the Red Scare and in the McCarthy hearings? J. Edgar Hoover was the first director of the Federal Bureau of Investigation, or the FBI; during the Red Scare, with the sponsorship of A. M itchier Palmer, the Federal Bureau Of Investigation was created with Hoover as its head. Under proves leadership, overall federal agents broke into the homes of suspected anarchists without permission, and held about 5,000 citizens without giving them legal council. Hoover also compiled list of aliens living in the U. S. For deportation proceedings. During the McCarthy hearings, Hoof r was greatly disturbed by Seen. McCarthy recklessness when it came to accusations about communism; McCarthy also produced a copy of a memo he claimed Hoover wrote and seen to Alexander R. Boiling, warning of subversives in the Army Signal Corps. Hoover examined TTL- e document and said he neither wrote nor sent the letter, which rendered McCarthy accusative NSA moot. Red Scare, J. Edgar Hoover was head of the FBI. Federal Agents working for over had nearly 5,000 people arrested without legal rights presented before them. Hoover is Iso known for having many illegal aliens deported from the US during that time. During the McCarthy Hearings, Joseph McCarthy accused Hoover of sending a letter warning Alexander R. Boo ling of subversives in the Army Signal Corps. Hoover also thought McCarthy accuse ions about communism showed his carelessness of thought. Hoover denied writing and sending such letters of warning. In the us during the red scare, the director of the FBI which is j.

Tuesday, November 26, 2019

Mothers are better parents Essays

Mothers are better parents Essays Mothers are better parents Essay Mothers are better parents Essay Mothers are more attuned Both parents can be equally good parents but overall, I do think mothers are a lot more attuned and responsive. It makes sense because they bear the child during pregnancy for nine months in their bodies! So you certainly feel the child already so close on that level. Something a father can never have and get. The mother knows the temperament of the baby even before It Is born. After the baby Is born she spends all day and night feeding, changing diaper, putting baby to sleep, playing tit baby. So there is more experience and learning about baby that helps Inform mom about how to raise this particular child. Like what works what dont. What the child Likes and dont like. Also women are generally more relationship and emotionally oriented. This helps with providing emotional support and teaching social skills to child. Women also have a biological Instinct. Fathers can sleep through a crying baby but mothers dont. I strongly believe that mothers are better than fathers because they are more ND spend more time with the kids and when the mothers hatch you like an egg you would know they love you more than anyone in the world they know how to look after you and protect you from other people by defeating. In conclusion mothers are better because they are looking after you gently not like the fathers just taking after you and Just go run off someone else leaving you out alone with no one else wit you and when your parents get divorced your mum would look after you way better than father .

Friday, November 22, 2019

Most Popular Articles March 2008

Most Popular Articles March 2008 Most Popular Articles March 2008 Most Popular Articles March 2008 By Daniel Scocco Below you will find the most popular articles of the past month. Check them out to make sure you have not missed any. A Writer Can be Anyone or Anything: I attended a writers’ workshop session at which a minor, but much-published author warned participants against creating POV (point of view) characters of the opposite sex. Found Any Eggcorns Lately?: A friend recently pointed me to a linguistic term that I hadn’t seen before: eggcorn (or egg corn). It seems that in certain dialects eggcorn is a homonym for acorn, as Mark Liberman reported on the Language Log in September 2003. It turns out that there are hundreds of these eggcorns in common use. But what exactly is it, in linguistic terms? Alas, Poor Heroine: Anyone who has ever taught knows The Look. It is the eye-rolling look students throw at one another when the behind-the-times teacher uses what she thinks is a perfectly ordinary word, unaware that the word has taken on a new meaning. Onomatopoeia (it is not something to eat): Onomatopoeia (on-O-mat-O-P-ya) is a word that’s hard to spell but easy to understand. Derived from the Greek words for name and making, onomatopoeia refers to the literary device of making words that imitate sounds. It’s a way to emphasize the sounds and it’s a technique we use often. In fact, many of us may not know it, but we’re using onomatopoeia when we teach children the sounds that animals make. Daily Writing Tips Spelling Test 1: Spelling mistakes represent a common problem on the Internet. Sometimes just one letter separates two words with completely different meanings. Other times we end up transposing a vowel, and the result is hardly noticeable by the eye. Regardless, you should make sure that spelling mistakes are not crippling your writing, and this test is a good opportunity to do so. Here is a teaser. No Country for English: In preparing to write a review of No Country for Old Men, I glanced at some online discussions of the film to see what other people were saying. The grammarian in me overcame the movie critic as I found myself paying more attention to the mode of expression than the thoughts being expressed. How to Write an SEO Article Part 1: In a recent article, A Freelance Writer’s Basic Guide to SEO, we had several requests asking how SEO knowledge can be used in practice, when writing articles. Naturally, we are only too happy to oblige. The Difference Between â€Å"will† and â€Å"shall†: In modern English will and shall are helping verbs. They are used with other verbs, but lack conjugations of their own. Both are signs of the future tense. Want to improve your English in five minutes a day? Get a subscription and start receiving our writing tips and exercises daily! Keep learning! Browse the General category, check our popular posts, or choose a related post below:Creative Writing 101Five Spelling Rules for "Silent Final E"50 Tips on How to Write Good

Thursday, November 21, 2019

Hsa 520 week 5 Coursework Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words

Hsa 520 week 5 - Coursework Example At this moment, is trend is as of now moving in the reverse direction. An expanding number of health care facilities are changing from their present best-of-breed frameworks to Epic, which is offering proven, doctor-acknowledged results that are coordinated crosswise over hospitals (HIMSS, 2010). Most of the patient data is put away in dissimilar frameworks over the health care facilities. There is a significant benefit of interoperability that is the result of the SAPHIRE project. The SAPHIRE project expects to create a smart health care check and choice help supportive network on a stage coordinating the remote restorative sensor information with doctors facility data frameworks. Thus, not just the perceptions accepted from remote therapeutic sensors additionally the patient medicinal history will be utilized within the thinking methodology of the clinical choice help supportive network (HIMSS, 2010). I would agree to Ernest Jackson’s writing because of various reasons. First, due to the growing digital society, technology has demanded that there be globalization and â€Å"villagilization† of the world. This has called for safe and fast means of transferring and sharing data from one organization to the other. This has promoted Interoperability which is the state of linking software and new systems which are being developed and implemented with multiple platforms and languages. It is also true that interoperability is facing challenges and ways have and need to be developed on how to mitigate these challenges. It is no wonder that it demands for high literacy levels and skills so that these software can be linked with the new developing system. This happens to be a major challenge since there is insufficiency of skills particularly in this field. I would again agree t Ernest’s writing on the issue of benefits offered by

Tuesday, November 19, 2019

Is music an entertainment or art Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words

Is music an entertainment or art - Essay Example   Ã¢â‚¬ËœIs music an art form or entertainment?’ is a difficult question for one to answer. Art is related with self-expression which reveals the creativity of a person while entertainment is based on public enjoyment. In a case of music, it needs artistic qualities as well the elements of entertainment. Considering the popular music culture during the 1960s and 1970s in English speaking world, one can find a brilliant amalgamation of art and entertainment. Historians have documented that the event of Civil Right Movement and the associated civil disturbance and the Vietnam War greatly influenced the youth culture. Formation of life style, values, and economic growth of youth marked the influence of these two happenings. Newly originated popular culture in which rock/soul music was the dominant one which changed lives. People from the English speaking world receive this cultural division of sex, race and began to see each one having different perceptive. Here, one can see th at popular acceptance of rock/soul music underlines the presence of both artistic features and some characteristics of entertainment. The new popular culture during the 1960s and 1970s marked the emergence of rock/soul music which provides some features of entertainment as well the characteristics of art. As a medium of entertainment, music requires a perfect content which describes the social and cultural heritage of the nation, brilliant instrumentation, and effective visual presentation. The song entitled, â€Å"Ain't Nothing Like the Real Thing" by Marvin Gaye and Tammy Terrell gives a particular beat style which promote a faster track than rock. Motown uses little bits of melody in its songs. Similarly, the frequent use of electric keyboards in Soul music gives a different experience for the listener. Social and cultural backgrounds The content of Motown music is matured and diversified which performed great artistic value. Research professionals mention that Motown became the centre of popular music in sixties and one can easily find its strong influence of African American or gospel backgrounds. Here, the lyrics of the songs need both artistic quality and some features of entertainment. The song â€Å"I heard it through Grapevine† by Marvin Gaye gives higher level of artistic performance as well entertainment quality. Michael Campbell and James Brody observe; â€Å"It is beautifully integrated: every elements blends shamelessly to convey the sense of the text which gradually unfolds the story of love gone wrong† (Campbell & Brody 185). In case of popular music in the English world, one cannot find the crisis between the features of art and entertainment in music. Music of Motown and Soul underscore the contribution of Black people or African Americans. Various use of instrumentation affects public acceptance and popularity. It is significant for a reader to notice that the songs of Bob Dylan and Motown give considerable status in lyrics. Considering the song entitled "The Times They Are A-Changin' (1964) by Bob Dylan, one can find that the Dylan gives more emphasis on its lyrics than music. The song is based on political movements of that period. The sufferings of and protest of working class people is revealed through his words. Even without a band and or any other instrument listener/viewer can get the feel of an anthem. Therefore, popular music culture in 1960s and 70s concentrated artistic features than entertainment. In case of music, songs of Motown and Soul acquired great popularity among the public because of its music and instrumentation. Artists have controlled the use of the elements of entertainment in their songs. Visual presentation and class identification are is not a significant matter among the public in

Saturday, November 16, 2019

Revenue Recognition Essay Example for Free

Revenue Recognition Essay The revenue recognition principle is a foundation of accrual accounting and one of the main principles of GAAP. The revenue recognition principle is a set of guidelines that helps accountants to identify when a revenue event has taken place and how to appropriately record cash exchanges before, during, and after the revenue event. According to the revenue recognition principal, revenue must (1) be realized or realizable and (2) earned, in order to be recognized. According to the SEC revenue is realized when (1) Persuasive evidence of an arrangement exists, (2) Delivery has occurred or services have been rendered, (3) The seller’s price to the buyer is fixed or determinable, and (4) Collectability is reasonably assured. It is essential for the users of financial statements to know that the real revenues are recorded and disclosed and not fraudulent revenues. A constraint of GAAP that is relevant to the revenue recognition principle is the materiality principle. Fraudulent revenues will create misstatements that could have a material effect on the decisions of financial statement users. In 2002, WorldCom a telecommunication company, filed for bankruptcy. It was later revealed that the company was involved with improper accounting in two major forms. First WorldCom inflated revenues to increase profits, thereby increasing stock prices, and increasing the satisfaction of stakeholders. Second, the company understated line costs. Revenue is important to users of financial statements because it helps them evaluate a company’s performance and prospects. WorldCom violated the revenue recognition principle by creating an account that did not come from the operating activities of the company’s sales channel. WorldCom named this fictitious schedule corporate unallocated account. This action was unethical and illegal, and gave the company a very bad reputation. According to paragraph 25 of PCAOB Auditing Standard No. 5, because of its importance to effective internal control over financial reporting, the auditor must evaluate the control environment at the company. As part of evaluating the control environment, the auditor should assess the following, †¢Does managements philosophy and operating style promote effective internal control over financial reporting? Has the company developed sound integrity and ethical values, and more importantly, do all employees understand these values, particularly top management? †¢Does the Board or audit committee understands and exercises oversight responsibility over financial reporting and internal control? The control environment is what sets the tone for an organization and is the foundation for all other components of internal control. It provides discipline and structure and reflects the ethical values, integrity and competencies of the organization. The control environment is very important to effective internal control over financial reporting to an audit client like WorldCom, because good designs can prevent and detect frauds and errors. But because WorldCom had such a poor control environment, the company would require more testing for an audit. This shows that the board did not exercise oversight responsibilities over financial reporting or internal controls. According to PCAOB Auditing Standard No. 5 paragraphs 26 27, the top-side adjusting journal entries are when the executives record the entries, or when the accountants are asked by the executives to record the entries. A valid use of top-side journal entries is to allocate income or expenses from a parent company to its subsidiaries. However, top-side adjustments can also be used to improperly reduce liability accounts and increase revenue or decrease expenses. Companies undergoing mergers, acquisitions or restructuring are particularly susceptible to the fraudulent misuse of top-side journal entries. Necessary evidence to obtain include sales invoices, credit memos, customer master file list, analytical procedures, and accounting systems. In the auditing of WorldCom, we would require adjusting journal entries, the MonRev spreadsheets detailing revenue, the corporate unallocated schedule, the automated process for closing and consolidating operational revenue numbers, and propriety of a top-side journal entry made to their revenue account. We would also need the authorization of the CFO or any officers. Good ethics is very significant for an organization. When ethical dilemmas are not recognized there could be serious consequences that could lead to imprisonment. In addition, a company will lose its reputation instantly. Assuming that Lorenzo and Taranto knew that the entries being proposed by Scott Sullivan were fraudulent they should not have recorded the journal entries as they were directed. If WorldCom had a control environment where it took more than three employees to conspire to commit such a large fraud, and where the board checked on the corporate adjusting entries, this could have been prevented. Employees should be trained and guided by a code of ethics and observed with appropriate influences for violation

Thursday, November 14, 2019

In Vitro :: essays research papers

In Vitro Fertilization   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  In vitro fertilization is a technique used to fertilize an egg outside of the woman’s body, usually done because of the failure of conception with normal sexual intercourse. For pregnancy to occur, a sperm must unite with an egg released from the ovary during sexual intercourse. Normally this joining, called fertilization, happens within the fallopian tube, which joins the ovary to the uterus. However, in some situations natural conception cannot occur because of factors affecting the couples’ fertility. In Vitro fertilization permits for the amalgamation of the male sperm cell and the female egg to happen in a laboratory instead of taking place in the fallopian tubes where this process would ordinarily happen. When looking at in vitro it seems to be a blessing to couples that cannot have children on their own. It seems to be a way for science to triumph over nature. But in that description lays the controversy. To some this procedure is a life givin g miracle that provides an opportunity for couples, who are by any other means unable to conceive a child, a second chance at bringing life into this world. While others would argue the ethical point claiming that this process is just a cover for infanticide and causing humans to play God. The moral question that arises from this procedure is: in allowing or assisting sperm to penetrate an egg when without help it would have otherwise not been able to do so, are we unnaturally, by human machination, over-riding one of nature’s barricades to inhibit fertilization? Also, if there is some sort of natural check and a reason that certain sperm fail to reach the egg, could it possible be for good reason that they do not? Is it possible that the sperm is ineffective because it obtains some genetic defect that would cause the child some form of inherited disease or some other deficiency? In other words, maybe there is some sort of natural or God-given rationale for filtering out some sperm. If this is true then we could be risking the possibility of manufacturing deformities and inherited diseases by assisting in the overcoming of a theological barrier.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  The process of IVF involves five major steps: the first step being the monitoring of the development of the follicles in the woman’s ovaries. The second is aspiration of the follicle’s contents and identification of the eggs.

Monday, November 11, 2019

The Cognitive Behavioral Approach

The Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy (REBT) is one of the models of the Cognitive Behavioral Approach for group psychotherapy. The thrust of the Cognitive Behavioral Approach applied to group psychotherapy is to understand cognitive and behavioral patterns in order to determine how to modify them. The modification of cognitive and behavioral patterns is instrumental in changing dysfunctional and maladaptive behaviors.   (Young, 2005) Moreover, CBT considers the cognitive schema and the ruling beliefs, which dictate how people lead their daily lives. This shall be the secondary basis for conducting group psychotherapy. (Beck, Freeman, & Davis, 2004) The REBT is a likely model patterned after Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy (CBT) because it supports the objectives of CBT.The REBT is considered a model of Cognitive Behavioral Approach in group psychotherapy because it focuses on understanding cognitive and behavioral patterns by teaching the concepts of REBT to group members and learnin g how to apply it to themselves and other members of the group. The model works such that there are three factors (ABC model) that influence the understanding of an individual’s way of thinking and behavioral patterns. These three factors include determining a particular event or scenario (A), identifying the feelings or way of thinking of the individual regarding the particular event or scenario (B), and evaluating the manifestation of the individual’s way of thinking in his behavior (C). (Jacobs, Mason & Harvill, 2006, & Ellis, 2002)The application of REBT to group psychotherapy is conducted by informing participants of the group about the theories and concepts underlying REBT. The ABC model is then applied to the personal experiences of the participants. Using personal examples is instrumental in having them understand the true meaning of REBT. If they get to apply the ABC model of REBT to their personal experiences and the experiences of other members of the group, then they get to understand the concept that way of thinking has something to do with how they act. Therefore, they get the idea that their maladaptive behaviors are caused by how they think about certain things and situations and not by other people or other external factors. From this, they are able to understand that in order to behave accordingly, they should be able to think correspondingly. (Jacobs, Mason & Harvill, 2006)In a research study, the CBT was applied to young children with Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD). Before exploring the employment of CBT to OCD in young children, the influence of REBT to the particular situation shall be studied. OCD is diagnosed in children as young as 3 years of age. Applying REBT in group psychotherapy for early childhood OCD, the concept of REBT is taught to the members of the group, such that the way of thinking has something to do with how individuals behave. This shall be accomplished by teaching the ABC model. In this case, OCD su rfaces when individuals think of extreme fears and anxieties regarding a particular thing or event.Once the group understands the ABC model, the leader asks a volunteer from the group to share a particular situation wherein OCD manifests. For instance, one member will share his fear of holding other people’s things, and this is because he is afraid of contracting bacteria or diseases from touching unclean objects. From this way of thinking, he washes his hands too often and excessively. From this experience, other members of the group are able to think about how OCD manifests in their behavior and thinks about what they think when it does.Moreover, they are able to understand that OCD surfaces because of how they think. From the example aforementioned, perhaps, the individual is able to understand that it is his way of thinking that hinders him from becoming more open to other people and his surroundings, and not the other way around. He observes that other people who do what he fears do not experience what he thinks will happen. Through continued therapy, they are able to conquer their fears and anxieties.The group involved in psychotherapy is developed in such a way that it will affect positive outcomes to the behavior of the group members. Therefore, leaders that are assigned to particular groups should have in depth knowledge about counseling, the issues behind counseling, and the knowledge regarding the characteristics of a specific group. Group psychotherapy is done simultaneously with each member of the group. (Jacobs, Mason & Harvill, 2006)ReferencesBeck, A. T., Freeman, A., Davis. D. D. (2004). â€Å"Cognitive Therapy of Personality Disorders.†Retrieved April 21, 2008, from Questia Media America. Website: https://www.questia.com/read/119384443/cognitive-therapy-of-personality-disordersEllis, A. (2002). â€Å"Overcoming Resistance: A Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy IntegratedApproach.† Retrieved April 21, 2008, from Questia Media America. Website: https://www.questia.com/read/111729203Jacobs, E. E., Mason, R. L., & Harvill, R. L. (2006) â€Å"Counseling.† Belmont: Thomson Brooks  Cole.Young, B. H. (2005). â€Å"Intentional Behavioral Change: A Cognitive-Behavioral Model.†

Saturday, November 9, 2019

Skill Acquisition Volleyball

The term ‘skill acquisition' Is used to describe the ability to learn a new skill. There Is no specification as to what Is classified as a skill, a skill can be anything from intellectual activities to physical activities, a skill can even be something as a simple as listening. The objective of skill acquisition is to select a new skill and study that skill until you have learnt it.Skill acquisition is an extremely important part of sport making it a heavily researched and investigated topic and therefore there are many efferent theories on the best way to acquire a skill. According to (Skill acquisition and performance Improvement, Abernathy B, 2005) with practice, skills become less consciously controlled and more automatic, this provides highly-skilled performers with the ability to perform multiple tasks relating to that skill concurrently and therefore for efficiently.This report will outline the stages of learning a skill, open and closed skills, types of practice, how fe edback can improve the process of skill acquisition and skill acquisition relating to volleyball. There are three stages of skill learning: cognitive stage, associated stage and autonomous stage, the aim of progressing through each stage Is to coherently understand the level that the player is at and therefore create a better understanding of what type of practice is needed to improve.The first stage of learning, the cognitive stage involves mental understanding, watching a demonstration and then having a coach to provide feedback as stated by (M Broadcloth, stages of skill acquisition, 2008). The aim of the cognitive stage is to be educated on the dynamics of the skill for example, a basketball player might watch a demonstration of the basic technique Involved In shooting a free throw, examining the technique they would then try to mimic It and If unsuccessful a coach or someone with a better understanding could then provide ways to improve the result.The next stage, the associated stage involves trial and error, tuning and honing and lots of practice, the basketball player once given feedback would adjust their technique and then practice it over and over according o (A Gibson, Perez, 2011) for example, shooting one hundred free throws one after the other In order to gain repetition and confidence. The final stage of skill calculations, the autonomous stage involves automatic execution of the skill and then the ability to focus on tactics and decision making.The autonomous stage of learning is extremely difficult to advance to, once the skill has been successfully learned, the autonomous stage enables the player to execute that skill consistently as stated by (Bored of studies, stages of skill acquisition, 2006) for example the basketball player, once able to shoot free throws every time, would have to execute this skill under pressure with another player trying to block or execute It with a time limit.Currently, I am at the associative stage of learning in terms of the ‘digging' skill in volleyball as I understand the skill and I have been given feedback in order to improve; I am focusing on repetition of the skill by doing continuous practice with simple digs. Each stage can be supported through the use open and closed skill knowledge. An Open Motor skill Is a skill which Is performed In an unstable environment, where reformed in a stationery environment where the performer chooses when to start the skill according to (Hubcap's, closed motor skills vs.. Open motor skills, 2012).Sports that involve the use of open skills include: netball, soccer and hockey as the environments in these sports are constantly changing and therefore movements have to be continually adapted. Closed motor skills include: serving in tennis and squash as the environments of these sports are stable and predictable, the players know which movements to make and when (Abashes, P. ND Taylor, J. 1996). The skill I am studying in volleyball is the dig, this sk ill is an open motor skill as it is performed in an unstable environment, the ball can be placed in my area at any time and the required skill may not always be a dig.There are different methods of practice when acquiring a skill, the quality and quantity of practice plays an important role in this process and is defined as massed and distributed practice by (NEWS HAS, The practice method). Massed practice occurs when one skill is continuously practiced in a session with only brief rest periods or none at all whereas, distributed practice requires a skill to be practiced through a variety of training drills with moderate rest periods as stated by (NEWS HAS, The practice method).The distributed practice method would be the far more effective method as the stage of learning I am currently at is the associative stage and the associative stage requires massed practice. Each training session I used massed practice to focus on digging; this was achieved by completing at least fifty digs f rom a set point each session. Through eased practice I have reached a consistent level in terms of accuracy when digging the ball and I have been able to take this skill into each game situation. The use of feedback has also contributed to improving each training session.Feedback is information that is given about a certain activity after it has performed in order to provide a better understanding. There are two types of feedback, descriptive feedback and prescriptive feedback according to (Craig Wringers, Human Kinetics). Descriptive feedback is when someone describes to the player what they did when reforming the skill whereas prescriptive feedback is when the player is given an explanation on what they can do to improve that skill (Craig Wringers, Human Kinetics).For example, during each volleyball training session after completing my skill, my partner wrote down descriptive and prescriptive feedback. In doing so, I was able to gather an understanding of how I was achieving the s kill and what was needed to improve (See Appendix 1). Through this feedback, finding the weak point of my skill was made easier and I discovered that the preparation needed to be improved when digging the ball; from here I was able to change from focusing on the execution to the preparation.

Thursday, November 7, 2019

Timothy Leary as an American Hero essays

Timothy Leary as an American Hero essays The term hero brings to mind many ideas, many events, and many people. However, one face it generally fails to conjure is that of Timothy Leary. Dr. Leary managed to create a level of infamy few Americans have achieved since this countrys inception; he is the poster-child of the mind-altering hallucinogen LSD and has been labeled by many as the subversive leader of the counter-culture movement of the sixties. Not many people appreciate this great mans long string of accomplishments, his devotion to scientific progress, or his cheery, irrepressible personality. It is a small circle of people indeed who would label this man a hero, but the truth is that Dr. Leary embodied the principles of courage, discovery, and benevolence, which none can deny are heroic trademarks. No man has shown more courage in the face of adversity than Timothy Leary. One great example of his valor comes from his early years as a cadet at West Point during the 1940s. After indulging in a quantity of alcohol with some upperclassmen after a football game one evening, Leary found himself before the Cadet Honor Committee of West Point awaiting punishment. The committee decreed that he must avoid social contact of any kind, despite the fact that during his court-martial the charges brought upon him were hastily dropped. For nine months he survived this involuntary solitude, until finally the school asked him to resign because of moral problems that his punishment was causing. Leary agreed on the condition that his innocence would be announced in the mess hall. Two days later, he left West Point. Long afterward, after earning a doctorate in psychology and serving several professorships at prestigious institutions as Berkley and Harvard, Dr. Timothy Leary developed an int erest in what he would later become famous for: psychedelics. Originally his studies were sponsored by Harvard, but after drug abuse became a maj...

Tuesday, November 5, 2019

The Age of Pericles and Periclean Athens

The Age of Pericles and Periclean Athens The Age of Pericles refers to part of the Classical Age of Greece, when the dominant polis- in terms of culture and politics- was Athens, Greece. Most of the cultural wonders that we associate with ancient Greece come from this period. The Dates of the Classical Age Sometimes the term Classical Age refers to the entire expanse of ancient Greek history, from the archaic period, but when used to distinguish one era from the next, the Classical Age of Greece begins with the Persian Wars (490-479 B.C.) and ends with either the empire-building or the death of the Macedonian leader Alexander the Great (323 B.C.). The Classical Age is followed by the Hellenistic Age that Alexander ushered in. Besides war, the Classical era in Athens, Greece, produced great literature, philosophy, drama, and art. There is a single name that signifies this artistic period: Pericles. The Age of Pericles (in Athens) The Age of Pericles runs from the middle of the 5th century to either his death at the start of the Peloponnesian War or the end of the war, in 404. Pericles as Leader While he was not a king or dictator in charge of Athens, Greece, Pericles was the foremost statesman of Athens from 461-429. Pericles was repeatedly elected to be one of the 10 strategoi (generals). Aspasia of Miletus Pericles was strongly influenced by Aspasia, a female philosopher and courtesan from Miletus, who lived in Athens, Greece. Because of a recent citizenship law, Pericles couldnt marry a woman who wasnt born in Athens, so he could only cohabit with Aspasia. Pericles Reforms Pericles introduced payment for public offices in Athens. Pericles Building Projects Pericles initiated the building of the Acropolis structures. The Acropolis was the high point of the city, the original fortifiable area before the city of Athens expanded. Temples topped the Acropolis, which was behind the Pnyx  hill where the assembly of the people gathered. Pericles preeminent building project was the Parthenon  (447-432 B.C.), on the Acropolis. The famed Athenian sculptor Pheidias, who was also responsible for the chryselephantine  statue of Athena, supervised this project. Ictinus and Callicrates served as architects for the Parthenon. Delian League Pericles is credited with moving the treasury of the Delian League to Athens, Greece, and using its money to rebuild the Acropolis temples that the Persians had destroyed. This was an abuse of the treasury funds. The money was supposed to be for the  defense of Athens and its Greek allies. Other Famous Men in the Classical Age Besides Pericles, Herodotus the father of history and his successor, Thucydides, and the 3 famous Greek dramatists Aeschylus, Sophocles, and Euripides lived during this period. There were also renowned philosophers like Democritus during this period, as well as sophists. Drama and philosophy flourished. The Peloponnesian War But then the Peloponnesian War broke out in 431. It lasted for 27 years. Pericles, along with many others, died of an undetermined plague during the war. The plague was especially deadly because people were crowded together within the walls of Athens, Greece, for strategic reasons connected with the war. Historians of the Archaic and Classical Period HerodotusPlutarchStraboPausaniasThucydidesDionorus  SiculusXenophonDemosthenesAeschinesNeposJustin Historians When Greece Was Dominated by the Macedonians DiodorusJustinThucydidesArrian fragments of Arrian found in PhotiusDemosthenesAeschinesPlutarch

Saturday, November 2, 2019

Interpretation Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words

Interpretation - Essay Example I, in this paper, explore the extent of society’s impact on people’s individual thought. Individuals are the elementary units that form a society and the people’s unique behaviors and practices define cultures and traditions that play direct roles on people and the way they think. This is because culture defines norms and thoughts that are in some cases sacred. The story, ‘A very old man with enormous wings,’ identifies the active role of the society on people’s thoughts as the author demonstrates actions and opinions that are illustrated at individual level, but with great influence from the society. Such a position of the society’s influence is attributable to the author’s style of portraying thoughts and behaviors as norms that. Pelayo, one of the main characters, demonstrates this through his response to his child’s temperature during a night. Though he is not an expert in health matters, he and his wife holds an abstr act opinion that crabs are the cause of the child’s temperature, an abstraction that can only emanate from generally held constructs, either implicitly or explicitly. The position that Pelayo and his wife hold after a scrutiny of an old stranger in their compound also identifies effects of the society on an individual’s thoughts. ... The high level of faith in the woman from members of the society is also demonstrated by other people’s reliance on her opinion to regard the old man as an angel. If the society had not dictated faith in her then some people could have come up with different views about the man’s possible origin (Marqueze, 1-2). Significance of the society is also demonstrated through Father Gonzaga’s approach to understanding the man. The Father’s society, defined by religious beliefs, dictates his understanding of the possible identity of the old man and he casts doubts on the man’s identity of an angel. The social construct of his religion further bars him from making a pronouncement on the man and extensive communication and bureaucracy have to be followed in determining who, or what the old man is. Such identification is further based on social practices among some communities such as the Aramaic. Another aspect that communicates the society’s effect on individual’s thoughts is the people’s generally held opinions that angels have extraordinary powers and can perform miracles. People from different places exhibit this general perception, come to the old man for cleansing and healing and their faith manifest through changes in their various conditions. Similarly, the society’s influence on individual’s thoughts is evident from the fact that a perception that is generally held by many people can change, abruptly, because of developed knowledge from social issues. People do not need persuasion on social mattes and quickly understands them without any consultation. When a girl who disobeyed her parent and as a punishment turned to a different creature comes to the society, no one seeks the counsel of either

Thursday, October 31, 2019

Course project week 1 Assignment Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 250 words

Course project week 1 - Assignment Example The fracturing process involving pumping of fluids usually made up of chemicals and water, into structures at high pressure. Following a buildup of pressure that ultimately exceeds the strength of the rock, fracture occur, which might extend hundreds of feet away from the situation of the well. A propping agent is then pumped into the fractures to keep it open, as pumping pressure is freed (Hydraulic fracturing, 1990). At the end of the fracturing, the inner pressure within the geologic structure makes the injected fracturing liquid to rise above the surface for storage in pits or tanks to await disposal or recycling. In the United States, this process is currently underway in the Marcellus Shale region that takes in places like Pennsylvania, New York, Ohio, Virginia Maryland, and West Virginia. South America also has fracturing going on in places that include Venezuela, Brazil and Argentina while in Europe fracturing goes on in Britain between Blackpool and Pendle Hil, in Lancashire. Despite much criticism, hydraulic fracturing has affected the economy in a number of positive ways. This includes the Creation of employment opportunities for many Citizens, generation of income for the many employees working in this sector, increasing the states revenues both directly and indirectly (Karapataki, 2012). In addition, the fracturing process has increased economic activities in certain places thus improving tax Revenue of the concerned Local Government. Hydraulic Fracturing Background Information | Hydraulic Fracturing | US EPA. (n.d.). Home | Water | US EPA. Retrieved March 15, 2013, from

Tuesday, October 29, 2019

Effectiveness of Teamwork in Virtual Teams Dissertation

Effectiveness of Teamwork in Virtual Teams - Dissertation Example .56 6.2. Ways to solve the problem 6.2.1. Virtual team management..59 6.2.2. Leaderships.60 6.2.3. Training provided for team members.63 6.2.4. Trust building among team members.64 6.2.5. Effective communications, e.g. add the frequency of face-to-face contacts..66 6.2.6. Boundary Management..69 Chapter 7: Case Study of Virtual Collaboration 7.1. The context and challenge.72 7.2. The challenge of building a virtual team...73 7.3. Defining a compelling challenge..73 7.4. Creating involvement ...74 7.5. Managing performance..75 7.6. Demonstrating commitment .76 7.7. Team success and illustrative outcomes ...77 7.8. Dynamics in a Global Virtual Team..78 7.9. Implications for virtual team leaders ....78 Chapter 8: Guidelines 8.1.Guidelines...80 Chapter 9: Conclusions 9.1. Summaries and Conlusions...86 Bibliography Chapter 1 Introduction 1.1. Background introduction 1.1.1. The origins of teamwork Much of the behavior of an individual in an organization is an expression of his place in the group to which he belongs. These groups tend to develop persistent patterns in their relations to each other. Because members identify with their own groups, they may express fairly uniform attitudes toward other groups. In some cases, well-developed patterns of antagonism are found between groups, with each being critical of the others and defensive toward itself. Thus, natural conflicts of interest exist even in the most wisely designed organizations. The formal structure typically establishes the basis for these conflicts by the way it differentiates its work units. With all of the diligence and understanding a manager can exert, differentiation across formal units and cohesion within each of them are the almost inevitable consequences of... If a group is not integrated, teamwork is likely to be minimal-regardless of efforts to develop it. Conversely, where integration in a group is high, there is greater potential for the development of teamwork. High cohesion is a necessary ingredient for the development of teamwork, but not the only one. In order for teamwork to be developed, a number of other elements are essential. Many factors operate to encourage the development of team relationships. Common membership in a particular group, the possession of a common terminology, the sharing of a common doctrine, common problems with regard to the current operational situation of the team, and common understandings of its significance, the possession of common means and channels of communication, the fact of frequent association, and shared values regarding the necessity for working as a team-these are all factors that enhance the development of teamwork. Nonetheless, the presence of the above factors alone will not assure effective teamwork. In addition, the development of a closely knit team requires each member to possess a frame of reference that embraces cooperation and coordination as operational requirements. When people act at cross purposes, it is because they are impelled by individual, rather than common, motives or by motives that are incompatible and irreconcilable. On the other hand, teamwork develops through the efforts of individuals who possess motives that require cooperative activities for their attainment.

Sunday, October 27, 2019

Voluntary disclosure and corporate governance

Voluntary disclosure and corporate governance Introduction: Theforces that give rise in demand of information disclosure in modern capital market stems from the information asymmetry and agency conflicts existing between the management and the stockholders. Therefore, the solution to agency conflicts lies in the ownership structure and the function of board of directors. (Jensen and Meckling 1976) found that the Ownership structure is assessed by the proportion of shares held by managers and blockholders.So managerial ownership which is (the proportion of shares held by the CEO and executive directors) and blockholder ownership which is (the proportion of ordinary shares held by substantial shareholders) are two major governance mechanisms that help control agency problem. In addition, [Fama 1980] argues that the board of directors is the central internal control mechanism for monitoring managers. Financial reporting and disclosure are important resources for management to communicate firms performance and success of efficient capital market (ECM).Fama (1991) defined ECM as a market in which new information is accurately and quickly reflected in share prices. The incentive to voluntarily reveal information still under interest to both analytical and the empirical researchers.Analytical research concerned and verified issues as how competition affects disclosure, (Darrough and Stoughton 1990). Empirical researchers documented the influence of firm characteristics like size, leverage, listing and managerial ownership on disclosure. Firms provide disclosure by financial statements, management discussion and analysis, footnotes, furthermore some firms involved in voluntary supply such as internet sites, press releases, conference calls, management forecasts. Corporate disclosure is proxied by an aggregate discloser score of annual report, including background information, summary of historical results, non financial statistics, projected information and management decision and analyses. (Botosan 1997])and (Endg and Mak 2003). Voluntary disclosure is measured by the amount and detail of non mandatory information that is contained in the management decision and analyses in the annual report. Research problem: Corporate governance mechanism that is well practiced could benefit shareholder financially by exercising more control in the companies management. Moreover, the corporate governance characteristic can be seen as proxies for independents and the alignment of interest between management and the shareholder in minimizing the agency conflict. Many researches have been done among different countries to find out which factors could contribute to more disclosure by companies in their financial annual reports.Accordingly this research examines the impact of ownership structure, the profitability and board composition on corporate disclosure, in other words examining the relationship between corporate governance and voluntary disclosure, because the disclosure of information helps to reduce the cost of agency problems when there is an information asymmetry between management and shareholders . The efficiency gab has been narrowed in the worlds major economies but there remain important gabs in what we know. In particular, we lack a sufficient understanding of the complicated ways in which the various corporate governance mechanisms interact with each other and with other characteristics of firms and economies. Research Questions: Is there any relationship betweenlevel of profitability and the extent of voluntary disclosure? Is there any relationship between managerial ownership and the extent of voluntary disclosure? Is there any relationship betweenthe family member sitting on the board and the extent of voluntary disclosure? Research Objectives: The main objective of this study is to examine whichamong the variables contribute to voluntary disclosure and which attributes drive management toward increase disclosure levels. Specifically, the objectives of this study are listed below: To examine whether level of profitability affect the extent of voluntary disclosure of companies in Jordan. To examine whether managerial ownership structure affects the extent of voluntary disclosure of companies in Jordan. To examine whether the family member sitting on the board affect the extent of voluntary disclosure of companies in Jordan. Significance of Study: There are many parties will get benefits from this study, corporations, regulators, policy makers, the analytical, andempirical researches.This research will improve their understanding on which corporate governance factors affect the extant of voluntary disclosure and will increase their information about this area via providing additional evidence on corporate governance and disclosure. CHAPTER 2 LITERATURE REVIEW Since separation of ownership and control is the predominant form of corporate governance, previous studies have investigated the relationship between the corporate governance mechanisms and firms disclosure behaviors. Many different theoretical perspectives and research methods have been employed by a wide range of research questions covering different countries and time periods. For example studies have been done by Chow and Wong-Boren (1987); Penmann (1988), Cooke (1991), Hossain et al. (1994) and Balachandran (2004). 2.1 Corporate governance The prior study mentions that the corporate governance refers to the way companies are directed and controlled. A primary concern is the likelihood of a deviation in the objectives of corporate managers from those of shareholders due to the agency costs involved in monitoring managerial behavior (Berle and Means 1932). Another study also mentions that the quality of corporate disclosures is associated with corporate governance characteristics. According to Bujaki and McConomy (2002), corporate governance has been described as the process and structure used to direct and manage business and affairs of the corporation with the objective of enhancing shareholder value†. Corporate governance has also been defined by the Finance Committee Report (1999) as â€Å"the manner in which firms top officers are being monitored and discipline accordingly with the objective ofenhancing shareholders value†. It is also claimed that â€Å"Corporate governance is the process and structure used to direct and manage the business and affairs of the company towards enhancing business prosperity and corporate accountability with the ultimate objective of realizing long term shareholder value†. Dey (1994) stated that proper corporate governance system can help ensure an effective division of authority among shareholders, the board of directors, and the management. According to recent reports by Newby (2001), investors are increasingly basing their investment decisions on companies corporate governance records and are willing to pay more for shares of well-governed companies compared to those of poorly governed companies. This premium for well-governed companies is explained by the role of corporate governance in a companys overall risk management strategy. 2.2 The agency theory Jensen Meckling (1976) in the agency theory provides a framework linking disclosure behavior to corporate governance. Corporate governance mechanisms are introduced to control the agency problem and ensure that managers act in the interests of shareholders. Theoretically, the impact of internal governance mechanisms on corporate disclosures may be complementary or substitutive. If it is complementary, agency theory predicts that a greater extent of disclosures is expected since the adoption of more governance mechanisms will strengthen the internal control of companies. Further, agency theory provides a framework for analyzing financial reporting incentive between managers and owners. Signaling theory explains why firms have an incentive to report voluntarily to the capital market even if there were no mandatory reporting requirements,and voluntary disclosure is necessary in order to come successfully in the market for risk capital,the ability of the firm to raise capital will be improved if the firm has a good reputation with respect to financial reporting. 2.3 Voluntary disclosure Penmann (1988) stated that financial disclosure could be divided into mandatory and voluntary disclosures. Mandatory disclosure is defined as any financial item disclosed in companies annual reports that are prescribed by accounting standards and or the stock exchange regulations. However, voluntary disclosure is defined as any financial item or data disclosed in annual reports of companies that are not prescribed by the companies act and or accounting standards, and, in addition, for public-listed companies, the stock exchange regulations. Further, Meek, Roberts Gray (1995) defined voluntary disclosures as disclosures in excess of requirements, representing free choices on the part of company managements to provide accounting and other information that deemed relevant to the decision needs of users of annual reports. Many studies have been carried out to explain voluntary information disclosure such as Chow and Wong-Boren (1987); Cooke (1991) Hossain et al. (1994) and so forth in their attempt to determine different levels of disclosures and the association between firms characteristics such as firms size and industry type and the levels of disclosure. In addition, good reporting is expected to lower firms cost of capital because there is less uncertainty in firms that reporting extensively and reliably. Therefore, there is less investments risk and lower required rate of return. According to Welker (1995), managers are not likely to withhold information for their own benefits under an intensive-monitoring environment, because this could lead to improvement in disclosure comprehensiveness and quality of financial statements. On the other hand, if the relationship is substitutive, companies will not provide more disclosures for more governance mechanisms since one corporate governance mechanism may substitute one another. If information asymmetry in a firm can be reduced because of the existing internal monitoring packages, the need for having additional governance devices is considered smaller. These apparently conflicting viewpoints on the impact of corporate governance have not been totally resolved, in spite of this theoretical ambiguity. Companies that perform well have a strong incentive to report their operating results. Competitive pressures would also force companies to report even though they did not have good results. Silence of a failure to report would be reinterpreted it as bad news. Companies with bad news would be motivated to report their results in order to avoid being suspected of having poor result. Such a situation would also force bad news firms to disclose results in order to maintain credibility in the capital market. 2.4 The reasons for voluntary disclosure Management of companies provides voluntary items in their annual reports because they perceived those items as important to be disclosed. Management wants to give information to users through annual reports in such a way that they are capable of meeting various needs of users for decision-making. There are various user groups of annual reports and each group has different perception regarding the voluntary items. One group may perceive item A as more important than item B. These differing perceptions among groups might be caused by different information needs to fulfill their specific purposes. Through annual reports, users can obtain more firms information relating to their decision-making. Although there are many sources of information regarding business entity, an annual report is considered the most important and valued source of information Vergoosen (1993). With regard to reasons why companies disclose voluntary items, theory suggests that many of the reasons why managements disclose items voluntarily to users are centered on the need to raise capital at the lowest possible cost (Cooke 1989). The following explanations may support reasons why companies disclose information voluntarily: Additional disclosures may help to attract new shareholders thereby helping to maintain a healthy demand for shares. Additional disclosure by providing more information relating to the present and future condition of firms wealth in order to build an image that may generate goodwill for future benefits (Iqbal et al 1997) Increased information may assist in reducing informational risk, which could lower the cost of capital. For the purpose of raising capital on the market, companies may increase their voluntary disclosure in annual reports. Consequently, listed companies are more likely to have a higher level of disclosure than unlisted companies Multiple listed companies often have an interest in foreign capital markets since foreign operations are often financed by capital (Choi Mueller 1992). Disclosure level might be increased to adapt to local customs to meet the requirements of banks and other suppliers of capital. Listed and multiple listed companies might increase their social responsibility disclosure to demonstrate that they act responsibly (Watts Zimerman 1979). Companies may have attained their status on the securities markets and are able to attract new shareholders for raising fund because they act responsibly (Cooke 1989) Under the capital markets transactions hypothesis, managers who plan on making capital market transactions (i.e., issuing public debt or equity) have incentives to provide voluntary disclosures to reduce information asymmetry between the managers and investors (Healy and Palepu 1995). According to the litigation cost hypothesis, the threat of litigation can encourage firms to increase voluntary disclosure (Skinner 1994). Table 1: Summary of previous studies examining Firm characteristics and the level of voluntary disclosure Year of study Author Country Variables used Result 1987 Chow and Wong Boren Mexico Firm size, financial leverage, and assets in place. The extent of voluntary disclosure is significantly related to firm size but not to firm leverage and assets in place. 1991 Cooke Japan Company size, Stock market listing, and industry types. Size was the single most important variable in explaining variation in voluntary disclosure. Stock market listing was also found to be a significant predictor, and manufacturing firms were found to disclose more information that other types. 1994 Hossain et al. Malaysia Firm size, ownership structure, foreign listing status, leverage, assets in place, and size of audit firm. Firm size, ownership structure, foreign listing status is statistically related to the level of information voluntarily disclosed by publicly traded companies. In contrast, leverage, assets in place and size of audit firm do not appear to be important factors in explaining voluntary disclosure by firms. 2001 Ho, Wong Hong Kong independent directors, voluntary audit committee, dominant personalities, family members on the board, voluntary disclosure The results indicate that the existence of an audit committee is significantly and positively related to the extent of voluntary disclosure, while the percentage of family members on the board is negatively related to the extent of voluntary disclosure. 2004 Balachandran Malaysia Voluntary disclosure, CEO duality and the proportion of independent directors on the board and on audit committees He found that CEO duality is associated with lower levels of voluntary corporate disclosures. It was also found a positive relationship between the proportion of independent non-executive directors on both the board and the audit committee to the extent of voluntary corporate disclosure. CHAPTER 3 HYPOTHESIS DEVELOPMENT 3.0 Introduction Upon existing academic literature several determinants explain why a firm may provide more information voluntarily than mandatory. Different theories such as agency theory, signaling theory, political cost theory, capital needs theory and so forth have also been used to explain those voluntary disclosures This chapter covers the theoretical framework, the hypotheses, the model specification and measurements of variables, disclosure index development and finally this chapter presents the model of the study. 3.1 Variables and framework 3.1.1 Profitability (Foster 1986) suggests that profitable, will managed firms have incentives do distinguish themselves from less profitable firms in order to raise capital on the best available terms by providing voluntary disclosures. Managers are motivated to disclose more detailed information to support the continuities of their positions and remuneration. Therefore, more profitable firms can be expected to disclose more voluntary information. (Haniffa and cooke 2002) find a positive and significant association between the firms profitability and the extent of voluntary discloser. This means that when there is increase in the profitability the voluntary discloser of this firm will increase. Therefore, it is hypothesized that: H1: there is a relationship between companys profitability and the extant of the voluntary disclosure 3.1.2 Managerial ownership ( Jensen and Meckling 1976) mention that agency theory argues that in a diffused ownership environment, firms will disclose more information to reduce agency costs and information asymmetry. In a more concentrated ownership situation, the impact on voluntary disclosure is more complicated. The argument can be made in either direction indicate that since managers pursue their own interest, higher management shareholding would imply a larger sharing of the loss, and ultimately, a lower possibility that management would lower corporate value. Managerial ownership is the percentage of ordinary shares held by the CEO and executive directors, and includes their deemed interests. When managerial ownership falls, outside shareholders will increase monitoring of managers behavior (Jensen and Meckling 1976). To reduce monitoring costs by outside shareholders, the manager will provide voluntary disclosure. Thus, voluntary disclosure is a substitute for monitoring. In addition, a study by (McKinnon and Dalimunthe 1993) found a significant association between ownership structure in diversified Australian companies and voluntary segment disclosure. (Hossain et al 1994) found that the level of disclosure of Malaysian companies is inversely related to the percentage of shares held by the ten most important shareholders. Further, empirical evidence shows that managerial ownership is negatively related to disclosure (Ruland, Tung and George 1990). Hence it is expected that voluntary disclosure increases with decreases in managerial ownership. Therefore it is hypothesized that: H2: There is a relationship between managerial ownership and the extent of voluntary disclosures. 3.1.3 Family member on the board When members of the board own a large number of shares and at the same time they are relatives from one family or a number of families, this may affect the financial disclosure practice of the firm. (Haniffa and Cooke 2002) in their study reported that the percentage of family ownership in any firm may influence the disclosure practice of the firm. It has been suggested that in countries where certain families have equity holdings there should be a little physical separation between those who own and those who manage the capital. (Ho and Wong 2001) mention that, the family control phenomenon is still in existence nowadays. However, it is still not clear to what extent the unique corporate ownership structure would impact the effectiveness of other monitoring devices such as audit committee, independent non-executive directors and CEO duality in determining a firms financial disclosure. Further, they stress that in a family-controlled firm, members of the controlling family would directly participate in the daily management of the firm by appointing themselves as executives and board directors. It is also assumed that every family member owns and votes its shares collectively. In theory, there are potential conflicts between the controlling and non controlling shareholders of a firm due to the formers propensity to extract private benefits through their involvement in the firm and other insider dealings. (Nicholls and Ahmed 1994) argued that capital owners do not have to rely completely on voluntary disclosure to the public to monitor their investments because they have greater access to internal information rather than the general public and stakeholders. This conclusion and findings are based on the idea that since members on the board have more information than external users this will negatively affect the extent of voluntary disclosure. This means that when the family ownership is large the voluntary disclosure of this firm will be less. It is assumed that companies with a family member sitting on the board are more likely to have lower level of voluntary disclosure than otherwise. Therefore, it is hypothesized that: H3: There is relationship between the family member sitting on the board and the extent of voluntary disclosure. 3.1.4 Control Variables From a review of the prior literature on voluntary disclosure, it was decided to include three control variables in the regression model for testing the main hypotheses. The control variables are firm size, leverage, and assets in place. Firstly, Firm size (SIZE): as a view of the association with higher levels of disclosure and firms size, (Firth 1978) who examined the impact of firm size, stock market listing, and auditors presence on voluntary corporate disclosure found that firms size and stock market listing were positively associated with voluntary disclosure. (McNally et al 1982) found that the companys size has significant relationship with the level of voluntary disclosure items. (Hossain et al 1994) found that firm size and Ownership structure of foreign-listing status are statistically related to the level of information voluntarily disclosed by publicly traded companies. Secondly, Assets in place (AIP): In relation to assets in place, (Hossain and Mitraa 2004) in their study examine the assets-in-place in determining the level of voluntary disclosure of data on foreign operations made by US multinational companies. The results indicate that assets-in-place influence the level of voluntary disclosure of data of US multinational companies. In contrast, (Chow and Wong-Boren 1987) examined the effect of proportion of assets in place on the voluntary disclosure. The results have not demonstrated any convincing evidence of any relationships. Thirdly, Leverage (LEVERAGE): the definition of leverage is the degree to which an investor or business is utilizing borrowed money. For companies, leverage is measured by the debt-to-equity ratio, which is calculated by dividing total debt by shareholders equity. The more total debt there is, the greater the financial leverage and the greater the risk of the company falling on its face. For investors, leverage means buying on margin or using derivatives such as options, to enhance return on value without increasing investment. Leveraged investing can be extremely risky because you can lose not only your money but the money you borrowed as well. Voluntary disclosure of information concerning debt fund may allow shareholders and bondholders to make better predictions about the growth, risk and return prospects of companies. Therefore, firms with higher leverage tend to disclose more information than the lower ones. (Cadbury 1995) in his study found that there was a positive associatio n between leverage and the extent of voluntary segment disclosure among New Zealand firms. 3.1.5 Framework Considering all factors of the independents and dependent variables, the model of the study is depicted the following figure. 3.2 Measurement Dependant variable Definition Measurement DSCORE Discloser score Total number of points awarded for voluntary discloser, strategic, non-financial and financial information (coding one â€Å"1† if the company disclose and Zero â€Å"0† otherwise) Independent variables Definition Measurement ROA Profitability Return on Assets MOWN Managerial ownership The proportion of ordinary shares held by the CEO and executive directors ( dividing the directors shares on total shared issued and fully paid) FMB Family member in the board Coding one (1) if there is family ownership and zero (0) otherwise Control variables Size Firm size This variable is measured by the log (base ten) of total assets LEV leverage The ratio of total debt of total equity value of the firm AIP Asset in place The ratio of net book value of fixed assets to total assets 3.3 Disclosure Index There is no agreed theory on the number and selection of items that should be included in a disclosure index. (Cooke and Wallace 1989) argued that the measurement of accounting disclosure is a procedure that has some inherent limitations and subjectivity. To reduce the subjectivity, the literature suggests that the following steps should be taken into consideration when constructing the index (see for example in Hossain et al. 1994). * Review the previous literature to draw a list of voluntary disclosure items. * Check that these items are not required by regulations and eliminate or omit any mandatory items. * Refine the list and get the views of academics and professionals on the items. Disclosure level can be measured in a number of different ways. The commonly used approach has been adopted using a discretionary item scores â€Å"1† if it is disclosed, and â€Å"0† if it is not disclosed. This method of scoring is known as the un-weighted approach based on the assumption that each item of disclosure is equally important. An un-weighted approach has been used in several prior studies like (Wallace 1988) and (Cooke 1989) in their study employ un-weighted disclosure index. (Gul and Leung 2004) reported that the final disclosure list contained 44 discretionary items such as background information, financial performance information and non-financial performance information. The background information includes matters that cover corporate goals, competition, products and markets. On the other hand, performance information includes items such as changes in sales, gross profits and RD expenditures. Furthermore, Non-financial information includes number of employees, and staff training and products segment analysis. For each item in the disclosure index, the company receives a score of ‘‘1 if it voluntarily discloses information on the item and ‘‘0 if otherwise. Furthermore, In (Balachandran 2004) study, he measures the disclosure score index that comprises the consideration of 66 discretionary items. He mentions that the study used approximately 60% of the discretionary items as used in the previously detailed studies. Further, (HO and WONG 2001), in their study measured also the reported disclosure by using a relative disclosure index. It was derived by first compiling a comprehensive list of voluntary disclosure items that companies may provide in their annual reports in Hong Kong. The index consists of total 20 items of most important that disclosed in annual report. However, in the present study, the extent of voluntary disclosure was measured by using a disclosure index which contains of items that disclosed in the annual report.For each item in the disclosure index, a company receives a score of ‘‘1 if it is voluntarily disclosed information on the items and ‘‘0 for otherwise. 3.4 Data Collection This research will use secondary data obtained from the annual reports of all the Jordanian companies. 3.5 Sample Selection The sample for this thesis is all Jordanian companies which are listed on Amman Stock Exchange; therefore the sample includes ninety three companies and covers the period 2002-2007. 3.6 Data Analysis: 3.6.1 The Descriptive Statistics This descriptive study produced the mean, minimum, maximum and standard deviation for each variable for Jordanian companies during 2002-2007. 3.6.2 The Correlation of variables This study shows how one variable is related to another. The results of this analysis represent the nature, direction and significant of the correlation of the variables used in this study and the correlation between variables is analyzed by using